CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION AND HISTORICAL MEMORY: REVIEW OF PATRIOTISM IN JAPANESE SCHOOLS

Emilio Jose Delgado Algarra

Abstract


The current rise of patriotic ideals in Japanese school as a result of review of Fundamental Law of Education (1947), certification of nationalist textbooks from "Japanese Society for History Textbook Reform" (Atarashii Rekishi Kyōkasho o Tsukuru Kai [新しい歴史教科書をつくる会]) and the teachers’ reactions against the State intervention and in favour of freedom of conscience have shown that historical memory management in teaching of History has an important role in Citizenship Education. Making a brief review about configuration of Japanese Education System (shôgakkô [小学校], chûgakkô [中学校], kôtôgakkô [高等学校] and daigaku [大学]) from the Meiji era (1868 – 1912) to the present; we are going to understand the key elements that have currently promoted the entry of patriotism in Japanese schools. By the end of the 20th century, the cultivation of patriotism like educational goal had already become widespread among right-leaning interests under the leadership of the Liberal Democratic Party and through its revision to the official Curriculum Guidelines (Kondo y Wu, 2011). Controversy has increased in recent years since the flag of the Rising Sun and Kimi-gayo had become the national flag and anthem in 1999. Issues like these have mobilized national and international public opinion.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.19044/esj.2013.v9n19p%25p


European Scientific Journal (ESJ)

 

ISSN: 1857 - 7881 (Print)
ISSN: 1857 - 7431 (Online)

 

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