European Scientific Journal, ESJ 2024-07-14T10:06:29+00:00 ESJ Editorial Office Open Journal Systems <h5><strong>ESJ SOCIAL SCIENCES&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;ESJ HUMANITIES&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;ESJ NATURAL/LIFE/MEDICAL SCIENCES&nbsp; &nbsp;</strong></h5> <h5><em><strong>40.000+ authors from all around the globe&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; Over 15 million website visits&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; Open Access</strong></em></h5> Les difficultés liées à l'enseignement des sciences physiques par des activités expérimentales 2024-07-14T10:06:29+00:00 Zakaria Faik Ouahab Ahmed Machkour Idriss Abou Otmane <p>Les résultats des apprenants marocains aux épreuves du programme international “TIMSS” en Mathématiques et sciences sont fluctuants et parmi les plus bas des participants. Après l'amélioration enregistrée en 2015 par rapport à 2011, les résultats obtenus aux épreuves de 2019 n'ont pas enregistré de progrès significatifs. Ce niveau bas des apprenants aux cycles collégial et qualifiant dans les sciences et en particulier les sciences physique est dû au manque à la compréhension des concepts physiques, qui ne proviennent que d'activités expérimentales.</p> <p>Dans cet article, nous avons étudié les défis rencontrées par les enseignants lors d’activités expérimentales des dans les collèges et les lycées marocains et leurs opinions sur ces activités.</p> <p>Les résultats de cette enquête ont révélé que, tous les enseignants apprécient l’importance des activités expérimentales dans l’acquisition du savoir et savoir-faire. Bien que tous les établissements scolaires disposent d’un pavillon scientifique contenant un laboratoire, cela ne signifie pas que les enseignants réalisent des activités expérimentales (Les enseignant se contentent, dans les meilleurs des cas, à des expériences de cours qui ne présentent aucun danger pour eux et leurs apprenants) suite aux problèmes de manque de matériel expérimental, la mise en conformité des locaux pour les travaux pratiques, la gestion défaillante des laboratoires, le manque de formation et la surcharge des classes.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The performance of Moroccan students in the international "TIMSS" program tests in Mathematics and Science shows fluctuations and ranks among the lowest of the participants. Despite improvement from 2011 to 2015, the 2019 results did not indicate significant progress. The low proficiency of students in middle and high school levels in sciences, particularly in physical sciences, stems from a lack of understanding of physical concepts, which are primarily derived from experimental activities.</p> <p>This article examines the challenges faced by teachers during physical science experiments in Moroccan middle and high schools, as well as their perspectives on these activities.</p> <p>The study's findings reveal that all teachers recognize the importance of experimental activities in knowledge and skill acquisition. Despite every school having a science wing with a laboratory, many teachers do not conduct these experiments. Instead, they settle for classroom demonstrations that pose no risk to themselves or their students. This reluctance is due to issues such as a scarcity of experimental materials, inadequate facilities for practical work, poor laboratory management, insufficient training, and overcrowded classrooms.</p> 2024-07-14T10:06:29+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Zakaria Faik Ouahab, Ahmed Machkour, Idriss Abou Otmane Effect of Capital Adequacy on Operational Efficiency of Commercial Banks in Kenya 2024-07-14T10:04:22+00:00 Jedidah Wanjagi Tabitha Nasieku Olanrewaju Fatoki <p>This study investigates the impact of capital adequacy on the operational efficiency of Kenyan banks, highlighting its importance for financial stability and risk management using a two-step analytical approach: first, Stochastic Frontier Analysis was used to determine operational efficiency scores for each bank; second, a panel Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) regression model assessed the relationship between these scores and capital adequacy. The study employed a panel GMM Method, accounting for individual and time-specific effects as well as endogeneity and correlation biases. The study concentrated on data from 2008 to 2022, spanning a period of 14 years of data. Data was collected from verified audited financial statements from the Central Bank of Kenya and the respective banks websites. The study revealed a positive relationship between capital adequacy and operational efficiency. Specifically, an increase in capital adequacy was associated with a 10.32% improvement in operational efficiency. The study also found that market structure plays a significant role in this relationship. Based on these findings, policymakers are recommended to adopt comprehensive strategies focusing on stringent capital adequacy regulations to enhance bank performance and stability.</p> 2024-07-14T10:04:21+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Jedidah Wanjagi, Tabitha Nasieku, Olanrewaju Fatoki Empowering Diversity in Education: A Web-Based Tool for Real-Time Sign Language Detection 2024-07-14T10:02:20+00:00 Shefqet Meda Oresti Leka Hiqmet Kamberaj <p>This study aims to give an overview of the disabilities faced by people around the world and, in particular, in Albania. It also highlights the primary concern of the deaf community, such as the expression. This study presents a solution to this problem through a real-time sign language detection web application. First, the structural and functional aspects of the application are described by the standard software specification requirements. Then, a description of the software architecture follows. The technological aspect of the application is entirely defined by expressing all the significant implementations of each programming language contained behind the software diagrams and architecture. The main goal is to provide the latest technologies in the market combined with a well-planned and developed image detection application that is scalable, portable, maintainable, and efficient in Empowering Diversity in Education. This technologically up-to-date application is delivered as a full-stack web application. The application produces results that waver between 85%-95% quality off detection; it consists of a bi-partite backend, one for creating and compiling models, namely Python, TensorFlow, and Jupyter Notebooks, and the other part held by Node.JS to power the front-end built with React and TensorFlow's JS. This study presents a fully developed web-based application that has the potential to impact and improve diversity in education significantly</p> 2024-07-14T10:02:19+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Shefqet Meda, Oresti Leka, Hiqmet Kamberaj