Caractérisation des Plantations à base d’anacardier (Anacardium occidentale L.) dans le Balantacounda: cas des communes de Kaour, Goudomp et Djibanar (Casamance/Sénégal)
The characterization of cashew plantations was made on the basis of socio-economic surveys. The cashew plantations are mainly of two types namely mixed plantations (associated with annual crops such as groundnuts, millet and cowpea) which represent 24% of the studied plantations and pure plantations and cashew orchards in which ones always have a few woody perennials (Borassus akeassii Parkia biglobosa, Mangifera indica Elaeis guineensis, they represent 76% of plantations. Most (52.9%) of the studied plantations have an area of one (1) hectare and are characterized by a very high density (± 200 feet / ha) with small distances (<5 m). Their yield is low and varies between 444 kg and 786 kg / ha. The Newmans-Keuls test at the 5% threshold used to evaluate the influence of plantation characteristics variables on their production showed that the distances, types of varieties used, the nature of the plantation (mixed or pure) are the parameters the most influential on production. Indeed the weak spacing lead to high competition due to the tangle of roots to overlapping crowns of adult individuals that impact negatively on productivity. In addition the "Costa Rican" variety with an average production of 800 kg / ha is more productive than the local variety (303 average kg / ha). A significant interaction was demonstrated by the analysis of variance between intercropping and production (F = 0.13, 1-p = 0.95, 16%). Yields in mixed plantations are indeed higher than in pure plantations.