European Scientific Journal, ESJ

22.000+ authors from all around the globe            Over 10 million website visits               Open Access

The “European Scientific Journal”, ESJ is a peer-reviewed and open access journal, which publishes research articles and literature reviews in English, French or Spanish. This monthly issued publication of the European Scientific Institute, ESI embraces a wide range of academic disciplines. Submissions in the area of social sciences, humanities, life sciences, medical and natural sciences are welcome.

Founded in 2010, on European soil, ESJ strives to become a venue for academic attainments from all around the globe. On its way to scientifically sound publications, it connects reviewers and authors from different countries and academic titles, providing knowledge transfer and sharing of best practices.

ESJ supports the researchers in overcoming contemporary barriers. Our effort is to provide decency through a realistic amount of publication charges; Fairness by cutting the timeframe for reviewer selection and first decision; Agility through permanent communication with the authors and reviewers; professionalism through a constant promotion of academic ethics and international impact through support of open science and interdisciplinary research.

Journal Homepage Image

Publication Ethics and Publication Malpractice/ESJ Ethics Committee

The European Scientific Journal (ESJ) is committed to upholding the highest standards of publication ethics and takes all possible measures against any publication malpractices. In this regard, ESJ adheres to the COPE recommendations. All authors submitting their works to the ESJ for publication, as original articles, attest that the submitted works represent their authors’ contributions and have not been copied or plagiarized in whole or in part from other works. The authors acknowledge that they have disclosed all and any actual or potential conflicts of interest with their work or partial benefits associated with it. In the same manner, the ESJ is committed to objective and fair peer-review of the submitted works for publication, and it focuses on preventing any actual or potential conflict of interests between the editorial and review personnel and the reviewed material.

Any departures from the above-defined rules should be reported as a complaint directly to the ESJ editorial office and its ESJ Ethics Committee. The ESJ Ethics Committee consists of the ESJ Managing EditorEditor-in-Chief, and the associate editors. This body is unequivocally committed to providing swift resolutions to any of such types of problems. ESJ`s Ethics Committee has successfully resolved all of the several complaints received so far. It can also contact experts and ESJ reviewers in a given field for their opinion and recommendations on a specific case.

European Scientific Journal (ESJ)


ISSN: 1857 - 7881 (Print)
ISSN: 1857 - 7431 (Online)



To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the '' domain to your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.

Publisher: European Scientific Institute, ESI.
ESI cooperates with Universities and Academic Centres on 5 continents.
Offices: Portugal, Macedonia, Argentina






On 3rd October in Marrakech, members of the ESJ editorial office and ESJ reviewers have organized panel discussion on "ESJ experience and further prospects".


ESJ editorial office has organized a Webinar for the ESJ reviewers on 13 September 2019. Our associate editor John Strait and senior editor Natalia Sizochenko shared their ESJ experience on peer review and academic publishing.


Starting in June 2019, every ESJ article has Review History alongside its final version. It consists of contact of the corresponding author, DOI number, number of reviewers and their names (if they agreed to open).


Dr. John B. Strait from Sam Houston State University, USA is appointed an ESJ associate editor. His short bio here.


We would like to thank Dr. Jacques de Vos Malan (University of Melbourne) for his great work and commitment as an ESJ associate editor in the past 2 years. Welcoming him at the position ESJ Advisory editor.


ESJ Special edition on "Artificial Intelligence & Ethics" with our Guest Editor Dr. Julia M. Puaschunder, (Harvard University). For details on the submission process Click here


ESJ Reviewers of the year 2018:

Mary Kathryn Mc Vey
Franciscan University of Steubenville, USA

Rania Mohamed Hassan
University of Montreal, Canada

Paul Waithaka Mahinge
Kenyatta University, Kenya

Evelio Velis
Barry University, USA

Nirmal Kumar Betchoo
University of Mascareignes, Mauritius

Arianna Di Vittorio
University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Italy


24 January, 6pm (Central European Time): Online meeting of the ESJ editorial office and senior editors.


Our ESJ reviewers: Szczepan Figiel, Jingshun Zhang, Brian Sloboda, Oscar Del Villar; John B. Strait, Eyal Lewin, Simone T. Hashiguti, Driss Bouyahya; Natalia Sizochenko, Janaka Jayawickrama, Leonard D. Holmes and Claudia M. Dellafiore are appointed ESJ senior editors in the areas of social sciences, humanities, natural and medical sciences for 2019-2020.


Happy Holidays from all of us at ESJ. See the ESJ You Tube video at the following link


Dr. Robert W. McGee, Professor at Fayetteville State University, USA is appointed an ESJ editor in chief 2019-2020. Click here to see his short CV. His affluent academic record at the link below.


The European Scientific Journal, ESJ is an official partner of Publons by Clarivate Analytics. Every ESJ reviewer can register his/her review report on Publons. Our account on the following link


8 members of the ESJ editorial board have attended the 13th International Scientific Forum, ISF 4-6 October in Fez, Morocco.


7 members of the ESJ editorial board have attended the 8th Eurasian Multidisciplinary Forum, EMF 6-7 September in Tbilisi, Georgia.


Belen Martinez-Ferrer, a Professor at Pablo Olavide University in Spain, is appointed an ESJ associate editor. Her Google Scholar profile at the following link


ESJ`s citation impact in 2018, according to Google Scholar: h5-index 31 h5-median 46 hl=en&view_op=list_hcore&venue=MQTZLImPvHEJ.2018


10 members of the ESJ editorial board have attended during the 12th International Scientific Forum, ISF 26-27 April in Prague.


Dr. Antonio Pulido Bosch, Professor at the University of Almeria, Spain and Dr. Pilar Caceres Reche, Professor at the University of Granada, Spain are appointed ESJ associate editors.


ESJ Reviewers of the year 2017:

Sabina Riboldazzi
University of Milano-Bicocca, Italy

Szczepan Figiel
University of Warmia, Poland

Marie-Noelle Albert
University of Quebec at Rimouski, Canada

Shadaan Abid
UT Southwestern Medical Center, USA

Kiluba L. Nkulu
University of Kentucky, USA

Aicha El Alaoui
Sultan My Slimane University, Morocco


15 ESJ/ESI reviewers are present at the 9th International Scientific Forum, ISF 2017 at the University of Cambridge, UK.


10 ESJ/ESI reviewers have attended the 7h Eurasian Multidisciplinary Forum, EMF 2017 at Grigol Robakidze University in Tbilisi, Georgia.


11 ESJ/ESI reviewers have attended the 8th International Scientific Forum, ISF at the University of North Carolina at Pembroke.


ESJ citation impact in 2017, according to Google Scholar: h-index 26 h-median 32


Dr. Tiffany T. Boury, professor at Franciscan University of Steubenvile, USA, has been appointed associate editor for the European Scientific Journal, ESJ.


Read the interview with Dr. Monika Bolek. One of the ESJ`s outstanding reviewers.


ESI/ESJ signed a Memo of Understanding with Autonomous University of Ciudad Juarez, Mexico.


ESJ 2016 Reviewers of the year:

Jelena Zascerinska, University of Latvia, Latvia

Juan Antonio Lopez NunezUniversity of Granada, Spain

Tiffany T. Boury, Franciscan University of Steubenville, USA

Anita Auzina, Latvia University of Agriculture, Latvia

Driss Bouyahya, University Moulay Ismail, Morocco


Disclaimer: The European Scientific Journal, ESJ did not publish an article on 9/11 attacks.PDF


In the process of delivering high quality academic content ESJ also cooperates with Cengage Learning.


Disclaimer: The European Scientific Journal, ESJ did not publish an article on 9/11 attacks.PDF


Invited Editorial: Responding to Incivility in the Classroom: A Case Study Rabow, Jerome (UCLA Emeritus prof.) and Keisha E. Payne (UCLA, BA)


ESJ citation h-index, calculated by Google Scholar.


ESJ hard copies global dissemination. Photos arrived from Mexico. Share your photos with the ESJ editorial office.


ESI/ESJ signed an agreement for content preservation with Portico.


Cpanel Awstats: In the month of March 2016 ESJ website visits: 275,243 by people from 206 Countries or territories.


ESJ became a Crossref member. Every article will be entitled with specific DOI number.


ESJ Twitter account


ESJ Reviewer of the year 2015: Antoni Vidal Sune, Rovira i Virgili University, Spain and Gerry Coulter, Bishop’s University, Canada


ESJ/ESI became partners of World Academy of Art and Science


The European Scientific Journal has been included in the Polish Ministry of Education journals` list.


European Scientific Institute, ESI 5th Anniversary.


ESJ Editorial Board 2015


ESJ Special edition. Published papers of Pan-American Interdisciplinary Conference, 13-16 March 2015, Buenos Aires, Argentina.


ESJ Special edition. Published papers of Eurasian Forum on Law and Economics, 19-21 February 2015, Tbilisi, Georgia.


European Scientific Journal, ESJ submission 2014 map


European Scientific Institute, ESI becomes member of ICORE (International Community for Open Research and Education).


Memo of Understanding with Sakarya University/Institute of Educational Sciences, Turkey


Academic Cooperation established with DSEE/Bilkent University, Turkey


Academic Cooperation established with North West University, South Africa


Memorandum of Understanding signed with CITAD/Lusiada University, Lisbon, Portugal


Memorandum of Understanding with Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India


European Scientific Journal, ESJ`s editorial note.


European Scientific Institute, ESI and New York Institute of Tecnology/Center for Global Health, USA have signed Memo of Understanding.


European Scientific Institute, ESI, Promo Video


Cooperation with the Middle East University, Jordan


Cooperation with the University of Almeria, Spain


Cooperation with the University of Flores, Buenos Aires, Argentina


United Nations Academic Impact, membership


Damanhour University, Egypt, partnership


Memo of Understanding with IBAIS University, Bangladesh


Partnership established with University of Madeira, Portugal


Partnership established with UNESCO (World`s Science Day celebration)


Memo of understanding with Mykolas Romeris University, Lithuania


Memo of understanding with Cracow University of Economics, Poland


Memo of understanding with European University of Tirana, Albania


Memo of understanding with Santiago University, Cape Verde


Academic Cooperation established with Arab Open University, Lebanon

July /2013:

Memo of understanding with Botswana Accountancy College, Botswana

June /2013:

Memo of understanding with the European University of Tirana, Albania

May /2013:

ESJ`s Index Copernicus Value, ICV, 2011 = 5.09
European Scientific Journal - IndexCopernicus™ - Journals Master List

April /2013:

"ESJ`s representative office established at the University of the Azores, Portugal (Coordinator: Jose Noronha Rodrigues)

March /2013:

" Call for papers launched, ESJ`s special edition with the Grigol Robakidze University, Tbilisi Georgia" (Project Coordinators: Jovan Shopovski, Nino Kermetelidze)

February /2013:

"Call For Papers", ISF International Scientific Forum, December, 2013,  Tirana, Albania (

January /2013:

"Call For Papers", ESF, Eurasian Scientific FORUM, 24-26 Octiber, 2013,  Tbilisi, Georgia (


Scientific Cooperation with University "Stefan cel Mare", Suceava, Romania


Memo of understanding with Vitrina University, Tirana, Albania


“ESJ” website in September 2012 have been visited by more than 8.000 researchers from more than 60 countries worldwide.


Project: "ESJ" in Spanish. Authors can submit papers in Spanish (with English abstract) (Project coordinator: Mr. Cristian Redi, Professor at the University Torcuato Di Tella, Buenos Aires, Argentina)


"Call For Papers", AIIC Annual international interdisciplinary conference, 24, 25, 26 April, 2013,  Azores Islands, Portugal (


Project: "ESJ" in French. Authors can submit papers in French (with English abstract)
(Project coordinator: Mr. Bouabre Gnoka Modeste, Professor at the University of Cocody, Abidjan Ivory Cost)


Cooperation with GALE - A world leader in e-research and educational publishing


Memo of understanding with Jazan University, Saudi Arabia


EURODOC (European Council of doctoral candidates and junior researchers), Annual General Meeting, 21-25 March 2012, Krakow, Poland


Common project: Joint scientific edition with Univerzity "Grigol Robakidze", Tbilisi, Georgia "ESJ" February 2012 /Special/ edition Vol.8 No.2

(Project coordinator: Mrs. Nino Kemertelidze, Mr. Jovan Shopovski)


"Student Exchange Agreement" and "Memo of Understanding" - Signed by European Scientific Institute and University "Grigol Robakidze", Tbilisi, Georgia


New Office Of International Relations opened: 55 Park Hill Sw4 9ns Clapham Common, London, United Kingdom


"Student Exchange Agreement" - Signed by European Scientific Institute and University of the Azores, Portugal


Cooperation with "PI - NET", Hungary (Postgraduate International Network)


"Memo of Understanding" - Signed by European Scientific Institute and University of the Azores, Portugal


Common project with Univerzity "Grigol Robakidze", Tbilisi, Georgia "ESJ" July /Special/ edition vol.19 and vol.20

(Project coordinator: Mrs. Nino Kemertelidze, Mr. Jovan Shopovski)


Common Project with University "Aleksander Moisiu", Faculty of Education, Durres, Albania "ESJ" June /Special/ edition vol. 16 and vol.17.

(Project coordinator: Mr Edi Puka, Mr.Dejan Marolov)


Common Project with University "Aleksander Moisiu", Faculty for professional studies, Durres, Albania "ESJ" May /Special/ edition vol. 14.

(Project coordinator: Mrs. Kseanela Sotirofski, Mr. Dejan Marolov)


Cooperation with Faculty of Economics, University "Luigj Gurakuqi" , Shkoder, Albania


Cooperation with Faculty of Economics, University of Korca "Fan S Noli" , Albania


Common Project with University "Aleksander Moisiu", Faculty for professional studies, Durres, Albania, "ESJ" April /Special/ edition vol. 11 and vol.12 .

(Project coordinator: Mrs. Kseanela Sotirofski, Mr. Jovan Shopovski)


Conference organized by "Egalite" - Society for equal opportunities, Skopje, Macedonia.

Posted: 2012-06-20 More...
More Announcements...

Vol 15, No 27 (2019): ESJ September EDITION

Table of Contents


Editorial Office
Isabelle Vézina, Robyn Gorham, Elena Hunt
Karla Itzel Zacarías Sánchez, Francisco Rodríguez-Flores, Ana Laura Luna-Jiménez, Nicolás González-Cortés, Román Jiménez-Vera
Pascal Chigblo, Koovi Penance Agbélélé, François Amossou, Padonou Adebola, Éric Lawson, Iréti Fiacre Tidjani, Soumaïla Madougou, Aristote Hans-Moevi Akue
Iréti Fiacre Tidjani, Eric Lawson, Abdourahmane Ouangre, Pascal Chigblo, Etienne Alagnide, Marius Boko, Soumaïla Madougou, Aristote Hans-Moevi Akue
Kamissoko Aly Badra, Traoré Marie, Oniankitan Sadat, Wann Thierno Amadou, Diallo Mamadou Lamine, Dakeyo Heze Charles Monbeau, Diallo Alhassane, Oniankitan Owonayo
Edéa Olayèmi Géoffroy, Hinvi Lambert Cloud, Abou Youssouf, Gbangboche Armand Bienvenu
Attiklemé Olivier, Agbodjogbe Basile, Atoun Carlos, Attiklemé Kossivi, Kpazaï Georges
Minhibo Yves Magloire, Akpesse Akpa Alexandre Moïse, Diby Yao Kan Séraphin, Hala N’klo, Koua K. Hervé
Md. Kamal Uddin, H. M. Zakir Hossain, Jahid Sarker, Fatema Nusrat Jahan, Nayar Sultana
Adidjatou Ouattara, Alassane Meite, Theodor Dally, Howele Ouattara, Seraphin Kati-Coulibaly
Ibrahim El Ghazi, Imane Berni, Aziza Menouni, Marie-Paule Kestemont, Mohammed Amane, Samir El Jaafari
Rasmata Nana, Badoua Badiel, Hamed Mahamadi Ouedraogo, Frederic Soubande, Zoumbiesse Tamini
Sani Maazou Mahamane Sabiou, Sabo Haoua, Souley Kallo Moutari, Maman Moustapha Rabiou, Sadou Hassimi, Aminatou Bako, Amoukou Ibrahim
Moloba Lukombo Yannick, Mobula Meta Victor, Ntoto Mvubu Roger, Mpanzu Balomba Patience, Belani Massamba Justin, Ngonde Nsakala Hervé, Mahungu Nzola Meso, Lukumbo Singi Simon, Botumba Kupesa Toussaint
Suleiman P. I. Ogah, Faisal C. Emetumah
Onatunji Adewale Paul, Folorunso Serifat Adedamola, Oluwasola Timothy A. O., Bamanga Muhammad Ardo, Folorunso Morufu Aderemi
Zougrou N’guessan Ernest, Tovi Wahon Marie-Odile, Blahi Adélaïde Nadia Méa, Kouakou Koffi
Gnon Tchein, Tounou Agbéko Kodjo, Agboka Komi, Tchao Manguilibè, Sanda Komla
Kone Souleymane, Bamba Siaka Barthelemy, Ouattara Ismaïla, Diallo Seydou, Kamagaté Bamory
Ibrahima KA, Abib Diop, Aliou Coly Faye, Papa Saloum Diop, Babacar Fall
Sarra El Hadri, Anouar Jaoui, Hassan Bouziane
Kouassi Adjoua Madeleine, Ouali-N’goran San-Whouly Mauricette, Soro Yadé René, Akessé Ettien Narcice, Coulibaly Adama
Mohamed El Fartati, Said Hinaje, Samir Amrani, Youssef Gharmane, Driss Yaagoub
Alexis Mbouloungou, Aubin Armel Koumba, Jean Bernard Mombo, Nadine Ndonghan Iyangui, Jacques François Mavoungou, Jules Djeki
Brahima Koné, Amidou Dao, Vamoryba Fadika, Dabissi Noufé, Bamory Kamagaté
Francis Enagnon Oussou, Joseph Oloukoi, Nicaise Yalo, Moussa Boukari
Akokponhoué Yanonvoh Nesny, Yalo Nicaise, Akokponhoué Houngnigbo Bertrand, Youan Ta Marc, Agbahoungba George
Bakayoko Yacouba, Kouakou Amani Michel, Dibi Konan Evrard Brice, Ehounou Adou Emmanuel, Essis Brice Sidoine, N’zué Boni, Kouassi Abou Bakari, N’guetta Assanvo Simon-Pièrre, Adebola Patrik