Generational Cohort and Work-Life Balance Policies Preference Among University Senior Teaching Staff in Ghana: Does Gender Matter?
The study sought to examine work-life balance (WLB) policies preference among generational cohorts concerning gender. Being quantitative, a population of 714 with a sample size of 333 was selected, but 306 responded. The main independent variable was gender while the dependent variable was work-life balance policies with four dimensions: Flexible Work Arrangement; Wellness and Personal Development; Leave Arrangement and Dependent Care Assistance. The data was analysed using inferential statistics. The study results showed that except for Wellness and Personal Development, where gender difference between males and females of Generation Y existed, gender did not differ significantly from the rest of the policies. Therefore, it was recommended that there should be equal treatment of both males and females in implementing WLB policies.
2. Antecol, H., Bedard, K. & Stearns, J. (2018). Equal but inequitable: Who benefits from gender-neutral tenure clock stopping policies? American Economic Review, 108(9), 2420-41.
3. Arsenault, P.M. (2004). Validating generational differences: A legitimate diversity and leadership issue. Leadership & Organisation Development Journal.
4. Atkinson, C. & Hall, L. (2009). The role of gender in varying forms of flexible working. Gender, Work & Organisation, 16(6), 650-666.
5. Aydemir, M., Dinc, M. S., & Çağlar, M. (2016, June). How work-life balance and work values differ from generation to generation: An exploratory study. In Proceedings of the 2nd Annual International Conference on Social Sciences (AICSS) (pp. 77-89).
6. Baick, I., & E. Drew. (2006). Struggling with juggling: Gender and worklife balance in the legal professions. Women's Studies International Focus 29 (2), 9–22
7. Bannai, A. & Tamakoshi, A. (2014). The association between long working hours and health: a systematic review of epidemiological evidence. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health, 5-18
8. Beutell, N. J., & Wittig‐Berman, U. (2008). Work‐family conflict and work‐family synergy for generation X, baby boomers, and matures: generational differences, predictors, and satisfaction outcomes. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 23 (5) 507-523
9. Brough, P., Timms, C., Chan, X.W., Hawkes, A. & Rasmussen, L. (2020). Work–life balance: definitions, causes, and consequences. Handbook of Socioeconomic Determinants of Occupational Health: From Macro-level to Micro-level Evidence, 473-487.
10. Burke, R.J. & Mikkelsen, A. (2005). Gender issues in policing: do they matter?. Women in Management Review.
11. Chung, H. & Van der Lippe, T. (2018). Flexible working, work–life balance, and gender equality: Introduction. Social Indicators Research, 1-17.
12. Chung, H. & Van der Horst, M. (2018). Flexible working and unpaid overtime in the UK: The role of gender, parental and occupational status. Social Indicators Research, 1-26.
13. Costanza, D.P., Badger, J.M., Fraser, R.L., Severt, J.B. & Gade, P.A. (2012). Generational differences in work-related attitudes: A meta-analysis. Journal of Business and Psychology, 27(4), 375-394.
14. Craig, L. & Powell, A. (2011). Non-standard work schedules, work-family balance and the gendered division of childcare. Work, Employment and Society, 25(2), 274-291.
15. Craig, L., Powell, A. & Cortis, N. (2012). Self-employment, work-family time and the gender division of labour. Work, Employment and Society, 26(5), 716-734.
16. Crampton, S. M., & Hodge, J. W. (2007). Generations in the workplace: Understanding age diversity. The Business Review, Cambridge 9(1), 16-23.
17. Crumpacker, M. & Crumpacker, J.M. (2007). Succession planning and generational stereotypes: should HR consider age-based values and attitudes a relevant factor or a passing fad? Public Personnel Management, 36(4), 349-369.
18. D'Amato, A. & Herzfeldt, R. (2008). Learning orientation, organisational commitment and talent retention across generations: A study of European managers. Journal of Managerial Psychology.
19. Deyoe, R.H. & Fox, T.L. (2012). Identifying strategies to minimize workplace conflict due to generational differences. Journal of Behavioral Studies in Business, 5, 1.
20. Directorate of Health, University of Cape Coast, Yearly Report, (2018)
21. Doble, N. & Supriya, M. V. (2010). Gender differences in the perception of work-life balance. Management, 5(4), 331-342.
22. Edmunds, J. & Turner, B.S. (2005). Global generations: social change in the twentieth century. The British Journal of Sociology, 56(4), 559-577.
23. Erdfelder, E., Faul, F. & Buchner, A. (1996). GPOWER: A general power analysis program. Behaviour Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 28(1), 1-11.
24. Fapohunda, T.M. (2014). Gender influence in work life balance: Findings from Nigeria. Global Journal of Human Resource Management, 2(2), 25-39.
25. Felstead, A., Gallie, D. & Green, F. (2002). Work skills in Britain, 1986-2001.
26. Fu, C.K.& Shaffer, M.A., (2001). The tug of work and family. Personnel Review.
27. Fujimoto, Y., Azmat, F.& Härtel, C.E. (2013). Gender perceptions of work-life balance: management implications for full-time employees in Australia. Australian Journal of Management, 38(1), 147-170.
28. Gentry, W.A., Griggs, T.L., Deal, J.J., Mondore, S.P. & Cox, B.D. (2011). A comparison of generational differences in endorsement of leadership practices with actual leadership skill level. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 63(1), 39.
29. Gibson, J.W., Greenwood, R.A & Murphy Jr, E.F. (2009). Generational differences in the workplace: Personal values, behaviours, and popular beliefs. Journal of Diversity Management (JDM), 4(3), 1-8.
30. Greenhaus, J.H., Collins, K.M. & Shaw, J.D. (2003). The relation between work–family balance and quality of life. Journal of Vocational Behaviour, 63(3), 510-531.
31. Grzywacz, J.G. and Carlson, D.S. (2007). Conceptualizing work—family balance: Implications for practice and research. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 9(4), 455-471
32. Howe, N. and Strauss, W. (2000). Millennials rising: The next great generation. Vintage.
33. Inglehart, R. (1997). Modernization, postmodernization and changing perceptions of risk. International Review of Sociology, 7(3), 449-459.
34. Joshi, A., Dencker, J.C., Franz, G. & Martocchio, J.J. (2010). Unpacking generational identities in organisations. Academy of Management Review, 35(3), 392-414.
35. Kapoor, C. & Solomon, N. (2011). Understanding and managing generational differences in the workplace. Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes.
36. Klapper, L.F. & Parker, S.C. (2011). Gender and the business environment for new firm creation. The World Bank Research Observer, 26(2), 237-257.
37. Kupperschmidt, B.R. (2000). Multigeneration employees: Strategies for effective management. The Health Care Manager, 19(1), 65-76.
38. Labour Force Statistical Report. (2015). Accra, Ghana
39. Lancaster, L.C. & Stillman, D. (2002), When Generations Collide: Traditionalists, Baby Boomers, Generation Xers, Millennials: Who They Are, Why They Clash, How to Solve the Generational Puzzle at Work, HarperCollins, New York, NY
40. Lester, S.W., Standifer, R.L., Schultz, N.J. & Windsor, J.M. (2012). Actual versus perceived generational differences at work: An empirical examination. Journal of Leadership & Organisational Studies, 19(3), 341-354.
41. Lewis, D., (2008). Convention: A philosophical study. John Wiley & Sons.
42. Lewis, S., Brannen, J. & Nilsen, A. eds. (2009). Work, families and organisations in transition: European perspectives. Policy Press.
43. Lingard, H. & Francis, V. (2005). The decline of the 'traditional' family: work‐life benefits as a means of promoting a diverse workforce in the construction industry of Australia. Construction Management and Economics, 23(10), 1045-1057
44. Mabokela, R.O., & Mlambo, Y.A. (2015) "The older women are men:" navigating the academic terrain, perspectives from Ghana. High Education 69, 759–778.
45. McDonald, P., Brown, K. & Bradley, L. (2005). Explanations for the provision‐utilisation gap in work‐life policy. Women in Management Review.
46. Meenakshi, M.S.P. & Ravichandran, K. (2013). Quality of Work Life–The Need of the Hour.
47. Nwagbara, U., (2020). Institutions and organisational work-life balance (WLB) policies and practices. Journal of Work-Applied Management
48. Oblinger, D., Oblinger, J.L. & Lippincott, J.K. (2005). Educating the net generation. Boulder, Colo.: EDUCAUSE, c2005. 1 v.(various pagings): illustrations.
49. Oláh, L.S., Kotowska, I.E. & Richter, R. (2018). The new roles of men and women and implications for families and societies. In A Demographic perspective on gender, family and health in Europe (41-64). Springer, Cham.
50. Oloyede, (2012). Effective work/life strategies: Working couples, work conditions, gender and life quality. Social Problems 47 (3), 291–326
51. Parker, C. C. (2007). Generational differences in work life balance Attitudes. A thesis submitted to the Department of Psychology of the State University of New York for the degree of MS.
52. Pasamar, S. & Valle, R. (2015). Antecedents of work–life involvement in work–life issues: institutional pressures, efficiency gains or both? The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 26(8), 1130-1151.
53. Pocock, B., Skinner, N. & Pisaniello, S.L. (2010). How much should we work: working hours, holidays and working life: the participation challenge. Adelaide: Centre for Work+ Life, University of South Australia.
54. Porter, S., & Ayman, R. (2010). Work flexibility as a mediator of the relationship between work- family conflict and intention to quit. Journal of Management and Organisation, 16, 411- 424.
55. Rafnsdóttir, G.L. & Heijstra, T.M. (2013). Balancing work–family life in academia: The power of time. Gender, Work & Organisation, 20(3), 283-296.
56. Rogler, L.H. (2002). Historical generations and psychology: The case of the Great Depression and World War II. American Psychologist, 57(12),1013.
57. Sarantakos, S. (1993). Varieties of Social Research. In social research (29-69). Macmillan Education UK.
58. Tapscott, D. (2009). Grown up digital: How the Net generation is changing your world. New York: McGraw-Hill.
59. Turner, I. (2017), Work-life Balance Among Medical Doctors in Nigeria: A Gender Perspective, Doctoral dissertation, University of Brunel, Brunel
60. Twenge, J.M. (2010). A review of the empirical evidence on generational differences in work attitudes. Journal of Business and Psychology, 25(2), 201-210.
61. Twenge, J.M., Campbell, S.M., Hoffman, B.J. & Lance, C.E. (2010). Generational differences in work values: Leisure and extrinsic values increasing, social and intrinsic values decreasing. Journal of Management, 36(5), 1117-1142.
62. University of Cape Coast, Human Resource Department, Yearly Report, (2017)
63. Van der Lippe, T., Van Breeschoten, L. & Van Hek, M. (2019). Organisational work–life policies and the gender wage gap in European workplaces. Work and Occupations, 46(2), 111-148.
64. Wight, V.R., Raley, S.B. & Bianchi, S.M. (2008). Time for children, one's spouse and oneself among parents who work nonstandard hours. Social Forces, 87(1), 243-271.
65. Yin, R.K. (2013). Validity and generalization in future case study evaluations. Evaluation, 19(3), 321-332.
66. Zemke, R., Raines, C. & Filipczak, B. (1999). Generation Gaps in the Classroom. Training, 36(11), 48
Copyright (c) 2022 Nicodemus Osei Owusu, Irene Combey, Nana Yaw Oppong
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.