• ORUNGBEJA BABATUNDE Department of Mass Communication, Babcock University, Nigeria
  • AJILORE KOLADE Department of Mass Communication, Babcock University, Nigeria
Keywords: Agenda setting, National address, Power, Ideology, Language, Citizenry


This study highlighted the value and appropriateness of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) in the examination of national speeches of political leaders for policy pronouncements. The purpose of this study was to investigate the interplay among power, ideology, and language and the mechanisms deployed in the national discourses of some notable political leaders to capture reality, manipulate, persuade and shape the audience (citizenry) to action. This study underscored the capability of Critical discourse analysis (CDA) to investigate the manner by which social power abuse, dominance, and inequality are enacted, reproduced, and resisted by text and talk in the social and political contexts. The study revealed attempts at ideology legitimization and power dominance through the use of cognitive discourses. We are taken through the empowerment ability of discourse in diverse sociopolitical contexts and how power relies on discourse for multidisciplinary actions that convince the citizenry to acknowledge, sustain and advocate their leaders’ ideologies. The study adopted a conceptual framework and relied on secondary and tertiary sources. The study also made recommendations to scholars on how to adopt discourse-related methodologies to enhance knowledge creation in political addresses. Lastly, the study acknowledged the limitations of the CDA approach.


Download data is not yet available.


1. Alba-Juez, L. (2007). Discourse Analysis for university students (Vol. 199, Issue 2000).
2. Baumgartner, F. R., Jones, B. D., & Wilkerson, J. (2011). Comparative studies of policy dynamics. Comparative Political Studies, 44(8), 947–972.
3. Beetz, J., Herzog, B., & Maesse, J. (2021). Studying ideology and discourse as knowledge, power and material practices. Journal of Multicultural Discourses, 16(2), 103–106.
4. Berenskoetter, F. (2007). Power in World Politics (M. J. Berenskoetter, Felix & Williams (Ed.)). Routledge.
5. Bilá, M., & Ivanova, S. V. (2020). Language, culture and ideology in discursive practices. Russian Journal of Linguistics, 24(2), 219–252.
6. Boyd, M. S., & Monacelli, C. (2010). Politics, (con)text and genre: Applying CDA and DHA to interpreter training. Interpreters Newsletter, 15, 51–70.
7. Chimbarange, A., Takavarasha, P., & Kombe, F. (2013). A Critical Discourse Analysis of President Mugabe ’ s 2002 Address to the World Summit on Sustainable Development. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 3(9), 277–288.
8. Christie, F. (2002). Classroom Discourse Analysis: A Functional Perspective. Continuum.
9. Cochran, C.L. and Malone, E. F. (2010). Public policy. In E. F. Cochran, C.L. and Malone (Ed.), Lynne Rienner (Fourth, p. 439).
10. Devrari, M. C. (2019). Language , Discourse and Ideology. December.
11. Dunmire, P. L. (2012). Political Discourse Analysis: Exploring the Language of Politics and the Politics of Language. Linguistics and Language Compass, 6(11), 735–751.
12. Fairclough, N. (1992). Discourse and Social Change. In Polity press. Polity Press.
13. Fairclough, N. (2013a). Critical discourse analysis. The Routledge Handbook of Discourse Analysis, 2013, 9–20.
14. Fairclough, N. (2013b). Critical discourse analysis and critical policy studies. Critical Policy Studies.
15. Fairclough, N., & Fairclough, I. (2015). Chapter 13. Textual Analysis 1. The Routledge Handbook of Interpretive Political Science, 186–198.
16. Fischer, F., Miller, G. J., & Sidney, M. S. (Eds.). (2007). Handbook of Public Policy Analysis. Theory, Politics, and Methods (p. 671). CRC Press. Taylor & Francis Group.
17. Foucault, M. (1982). The Subject and Power. Critical Inquiry, 8(4), 777–795.
18. Halliday, M. A. . (2003). On Language and Linguistics (J. Webster (Ed.); Vol. 3). Continuum.
19. Halliday, M. A. K. (1985). An introduction to functional grammar. Hodder Arnold.
20. Holzscheiter, A. (2005). Discourse as Capability: Non-State Actors’ Capital in Global Governance. Millennium: Journal of International Studies, 33(3), 723–746.
21. Hunston, S. (2013). Systemic functional linguistics, corpus linguistics, and the ideology of science. Text and Talk, 33(4–5), 617–640.
22. Ideobodo, N.-O., Okolo, M. C., & Eze, K. T. (2018). Public Policy Formulation and Implementation in Nigeria: Questions, Challenges and Prospects. Global Journal of Management and Business Research: A Administration and Management, 18(13), 44–52.
23. Jahedi, M., Abdullah, F. S. and, & Mukundan, J. (2014). An Overview of Focal Approaches of Critical Discourse Analysis. International Journal of Education and Literacy Studies, 2(4), 28–35.
24. Javadi, J., & Mohammadi, M. (2019). A comparative critical discourse analysis of hillary Clinton and Donald Trump’s language use in US Presidential campaign: A new analytical framework for reading journalistic texts. Pertanika Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 27(4), 2201–2213.
25. Jørgensen, M., & Phillips, L. (2002). Discourse Analysis as Theory and Method. In Discourse Analysis as Theory and Method.
26. Kamalu, I., & Agangan, R. (2011). Language, Discourse & Society. Language and Society, 1, 1(December), 32–54.
27. Kazemian, B., & Hashemi, S. (2014). Critical discourse analysis of Barack Obama’s 2012 speeches: Views from systemic functional linguistics and Rhetoric. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 4(6), 1178–1187.
28. Khan, Z., Karman, U., & Umar, L. (2019). A Critical Discourse Analysis of President Musharraf’s Speechs: Legitimizing War on Terror. University Islamabad, Pakistan, 14(4), 233–241.
29. Lukes, S. (2005). Power in World politics. In M. J. Berenskoetter, Felix and Williams (Ed.), Routledge. Routledge.
30. Mirzaei, A., Eslami, Z. R., & Safari, F. (2017). Exploring Rhetorical-Discursive Practices of Rouhani’s Presidential Campaign and Victory of his Prudence-and-Hope Key: a Discourse of Persuasion. Russian Journal of Linguistics, 21(1), 161–182.
31. Ogunmuyiwa, H. O. (2015). Critical Discourse Analysis of Corruption in Presidential Speeches. International Journal for Innovation Education and Research, 3(12), 31–50.
32. Rubdy, R. (2008). Encyclopedia of Language and Education. Encyclopedia of Language and Education, July, 0–14.
33. Rubic-Remorosa, R. (2018). President Rodrigo Roa Duterte’s Political Speeches : A Critical Discourse Analysis. 23(8), 72–87.
34. Sharififar, M., & Rahimi, E. (2015). Critical Discourse Analysis of Political Speeches: A Case Study of Obama’s and Rouhani’s Speeches at UN. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 5(2), 343.
35. Sierra, S. A., & Hamilton, H. E. (2016). Intertextual media references as resources for managing frames, epistemics, and identity in conversation among friends. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, 235.
36. Thompson, G., & Muntigl, P. (2008). Systemic Functional Linguistics: An interpersonal perspective. In Handbook of Interpersonal Communication (Issue April).
37. Van Dijk, T. A. (2016). Critical discourse analysis. Revista Austral de Ciencias Sociales.
38. Wodak, R., & Meyer, M. (2009). Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis: Vol. 2. (M. Wodak, Ruth and Meyer (Ed.); Second Edi). SAGE Publications Ltd.
39. Wodak, R. (2012). Language, power and identity. Language Teaching, 45(2), 215–233.
40. Wodak, R., & Kendall, G. (2007). What is critical discourse analysis? Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung, 8(2), 9–34.
41. Wodak, R., & Meyer, M. (Eds.). (2001). Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis. Sage Piublications.
42. Wodak, R., & Meyer, M. (2008). Critical Discourse Analysis: History, Agenda, Theory, and Methodology 1. 1–33.
How to Cite
BABATUNDE, O., & KOLADE, A. (2022). NATIONAL SPEECHES ON NOTABLE POLITICAL FIGURES: A position paper on CDA studies. European Scientific Journal, ESJ, 7(1), 168. Retrieved from
ESI Preprints