Consumer Responses to CSR in Greek Banking Sector: Does CSR Really Matter?
The present study aims to investigate the impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on consumers’ preferences and loyalty in the banking sector. The researchers examined the main concepts associated with CSR and how it is related to the choice and the retention of customers to a specific bank. Qualitative research was implemented by the use of semi-structured interviews with 67 individuals. The purpose of the research was to analyze the extent to which CSR actions affect customers’ choices and loyalty to a bank. The main conclusions that emerged are that although the satisfaction and commitment, as well as the positive perception of consumers, depend on the trust created by the banks, customers in Greece still believe that the CSR actions implemented by banks only contribute to the increase in their organizational profits through the improved corporate reputation and recognition, and thus CSR has not a significant impact on customers’ attraction and loyalty. Finally, it became clear that one of the major problems in the banking sector is the lack of public confidence in the way banks operate and the special role they play in modern societies.
2. Assarroudi, A., Heshmati Nabavi, F., Armat, M. R., Ebadi, A., & Vaismoradi, M. (2018). Directed qualitative content analysis: the description and elaboration of its underpinning methods and data analysis process. Journal of Research in Nursing, 23(1), 42-55.
3. Becker-Olsen, K. L., Cudmore, B. A., & Hill, R. P. (2006). The impact of perceived corporate social responsibility on consumer behavior. Journal of business research, 59(1), 46-53.
4. Benn, S., Abratt, R., & Kleyn, N. (2016). Reducing reputational risk: Evaluating stakeholder salience and prioritising stakeholder claims. Marketing Intelligence & Planning.
5. Bhaskaran, S., & Hardley, F. (2002). Buyer beliefs, attitudes and behaviour: foods with therapeutic claims. Journal of Consumer Marketing.
6. Bhat, S. A., Darzi, M. A., & Parrey, S. H. (2018). Antecedents of customer loyalty in banking sector: a mediational study. Vikalpa, 43(2), 92-105.
7. Bihari, S. C., & Pradhan, S. (2011). CSR and performance: the story of banks in India. Journal of Transnational Management, 16(1), 20-35.
8. Bolton, B. J. (2013). Corporate social responsibility and bank performance. Available at SSRN 2277912.
9. Bowen, H. (1953). Social Responsibilities of the Businessman. New York: Harper
10. Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative research in psychology, 3(2), 77-101.
11. Brown, T. J., & Dacin, P. A. (1997). The company and the product: Corporate associations and consumer product responses. Journal of marketing, 61(1), 68-84.
12. Brummer, J. J. (1991). Corporate responsibility and legitimacy: An interdisciplinary analysis.
13. Bryman, A., & Cramer, D. (2012). Quantitative data analysis with IBM SPSS 17, 18 & 19: A guide for social scientists. Routledge.
14. Carrasco, I. (2007). Corporate social responsibility, values, and cooperation. International Advances in Economic Research, 13(4), 454-460.
15. Carroll, A. B. (1999). Corporate social responsibility: Evolution of a definitional construct. Business & society, 38(3), 268-295.
16. Carroll, A. B. (1979). A three-dimensional conceptual model of corporate performance. Academy of management review, 4(4), 497-505.
17. Chomvilailuk, R., & Butcher, K. (2014). Effects of quality and corporate social responsibility on loyalty. The Service Industries Journal, 34(11), 938-954.
18. Creswell, J. W. (1998). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five traditions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
19. Darzi, M. A., & Bhat, S. A. (2018). Personnel capability and customer satisfaction as predictors of customer retention in the banking sector: A mediated-moderation study. International journal of bank marketing.
20. Dathe, T., Dathe, R., Dathe, I., & Helmold, M. (2022). Stakeholder der CSR. In Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), Sustainability and Environmental Social Governance (ESG) (pp. 143-148). Springer, Cham.
21. Davis, K. (1973). The case for and against business assumption of social responsibilities. Academy of Management journal, 16(2), 312-322.
22. Devie, D., Liman, L. P., Tarigan, J., & Jie, F. (2019). Corporate social responsibility, financial performance and risk in Indonesian natural resources industry. Social Responsibility Journal.
23. Downe‐Wamboldt, B. (1992). Content analysis: method, applications, and issues. Health care for women international, 13(3), 313-321.
24. Ellen, P. S., Webb, D. J., & Mohr, L. A. (2006). Building corporate associations: Consumer attributions for corporate socially responsible programs. Journal of the academy of Marketing Science, 34(2), 147-157.
25. Fahy, M., Roche, J., & Weiner, A. (2005). Beyond governance: Creating corporate value through performance, conformance and responsibility. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, Inc
26. Fandos-Roig, J. C., Sánchez-García, J., Tena-Monferrer, S., & Callarisa-Fiol, L. J. (2020). Does CSR help to retain customers in a service company?. Sustainability, 13(1), 300.
27. Farcane, N., & Bureana, E. (2015). History of" Corporate social responsibility" concept. Annales Universitatis Apulensis: Series Oeconomica, 17(2), 31.
28. Fatma, M., & Rahman, Z. (2016). The CSR's influence on customer responses in Indian banking sector. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 29, 49-57.
29. Fida, B. A., Ahmed, U., Al-Balushi, Y., & Singh, D. (2020). Impact of service quality on customer loyalty and customer satisfaction in islamic banks in the Sultanate of Oman. Sage Open, 10(2), 2158244020919517.
30. Freeman, R. E. (1984). Strategic Management: A Stakeholder Approach, Boston, Pitman. Lukas, Janina (2017): Ethik als Standard in der Beschaffung. Werte und Normen als Gestaltungsausgangspunkt von Nicht-Regierungs-Organisationen. Wiesbaden: Springer Gabler.
31. Friedman, M. (1962). Excerpts from Milton Friedman, Capitalism and Freedom. Chapter, 1, 7-17.
32. Garriga, E., & Melé, D. (2004). Corporate social responsibility theories: Mapping the territory. Journal of business ethics, 53(1), 51-71.
33. Gond, J. P., & Nyberg, D. (2017). Materializing power to recover corporate social responsibility. Organization Studies, 38(8), 1127-1148
34. Goodpaster, K. E. (1991). Business ethics and stakeholder analysis. Business ethics quarterly, 53-73.
35. Green, T., & Peloza, J. (2014). How do consumers infer corporate social responsibility? The role of organisation size. Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 13(4), 282-293.
36. Grove, H., Patelli, L., Victoravich, L. M., & Xu, P. (2011). Corporate governance and performance in the wake of the financial crisis: Evidence from US commercial banks. Corporate Governance: An International Review, 19(5), 418-436.
37. Hackethal, A., Schmidt, R. H., & Tyrell, M. (2005). Banks and German Corporate Governance: on the way to a capital market‐based system?. Corporate Governance: An International Review, 13(3), 397-407.
38. Hahn, T., Pinkse, J., Preuss, L., & Figge, F. (2015). Tensions in corporate sustainability: Towards an integrative framework. Journal of Business Ethics, 127(2), 297–316. doi:10.1007/s10551-014-2047-5.
39. Hakim, C. (2012). Research design: Succesful designs for social economics research. Routledge.
40. Hansen, S. D., Dunford, B. B., Boss, A. D., Boss, R. W., & Angermeier, I. (2011). Corporate social responsibility and the benefits of employee trust: A cross-disciplinary perspective. Journal of business ethics, 102(1), 29-45.
41. Hayek, F. A. (1969). The corporation in a democratic society: in whose interest ought it and will it be run. Business Strategy. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 225.
42. Heald, M. (1970). The social responsibilities of business: Company and community 1900-1960. Transaction Publishers.
43. Hoang, T. (2014, November). CSR IN BANKING SECTOR A LITERATURE REVIEW AND NEW RESEARCH DIRECTIONS. International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management, 2(11).
44. Hoffmann, J. (2018). Talking into (non) existence: Denying or constituting paradoxes of Corporate Social Responsibility. Human Relations, 71(5), 668-691.
45. Hohner, P. (2007). An overview of CSR. Corporate Social Responsibility, An Implementation guide for business, 1-12.
46. Jahan, N., & Shahria, G. (2021). Factors effecting customer satisfaction of mobile banking in Bangladesh: a study on young users' perspective. South Asian Journal of Marketing.
47. Jahn, J., & Brühl, R. (2018). How Friedman’s view on individual freedom relates to stakeholder theory and social contract theory. Journal of Business Ethics, 153(1), 41-52.
48. Jonathan, A. (2006). Banking Sector Efficiency in Namibia.
49. Kefis, V. & Xanthopoulou, P. (2014). Redefining CSR as an Innovative Tool in Crisis Times: the Greek Approach. International Journal of Science and Research Methodology, 4(4), 150-166.
50. Kostyuk, A., Kostyuk, H., Mozghovyi, Y., & Kravchenko, Y. (2013). Corporate Social Responsibility index for Ukrainian banks: The essentials for implementation. Available at SSRN 2542097.
51. Kotler, P., & Lee, N. (2005). Best of breed: When it comes to gaining a market edge while supporting a social cause,“corporate social marketing” leads the pack. Social marketing quarterly, 11(3-4), 91-103.
52. Kvale, S. (1996). The 1,000-page question. Qualitative inquiry, 2(3), 275-284.
53. Latapí Agudelo, M. A., Jóhannsdóttir, L., & Davídsdóttir, B. (2019). A literature review of the history and evolution of corporate social responsibility. International Journal of Corporate Social Responsibility, 4(1), 1-23.
54. Lee, E. M., Park, S. Y., Rapert, M. I., & Newman, C. L. (2012). Does perceived consumer fit matter in corporate social responsibility issues?. Journal of business research, 65(11), 1558-1564.
55. Lundgren, M., & Catasús, B. (2000). The banks' impact on the natural environment–on the space between ‘what is’ and ‘what if’. Business Strategy and the Environment, 9(3), 186-195.
56. Luo, X., & Bhattacharya, C. B. (2006). Corporate social responsibility, customer satisfaction, and market value. Journal of marketing, 70(4), 1-18.
57. Maguire, M., & Delahunt, B. (2017). Doing a thematic analysis: A practical, step-by-step guide for learning and teaching scholars. All Ireland Journal of Higher Education, 9(3).
58. Mayer, C. (2018). Prosperity: Better business makes the greater good. Oxford University Press.
59. Meho, L. I. (2006). E‐mail interviewing in qualitative research: A methodological discussion. Journal of the American society for information science and technology, 57(10), 1284-1295.
60. Mercer, J. J. (2003). Corporate social responsibility and its importance to consumers. The Claremont Graduate University.
61. Morgan, D. L. (1993). Qualitative content analysis: a guide to paths not taken. Qualitative health research, 3(1), 112-121.
62. Pomering, A., & Dolnicar, S. (2009). Assessing the prerequisite of successful CSR implementation: are consumers aware of CSR initiatives?. Journal of business ethics, 85(2), 285-301.
63. Rita, P., Oliveira, T., & Farisa, A. (2019). The impact of e-service quality and customer satisfaction on customer behavior in online shopping. Heliyon, 5(10), e02690.
64. Saeidi, S. P., Sofian, S., Saeidi, P., Saeidi, S. P., & Saaeidi, S. A. (2015). How does corporate social responsibility contribute to firm financial performance? The mediating role of competitive advantage, reputation, and customer satisfaction. Journal of business research, 68(2), 341-350.
65. Sahinidis, A. G., & Kavoura, A. (2014). Exploring corporate social responsibility practices of Greek companies. Zeszyty Naukowe Małopolskiej Wyższej Szkoły Ekonomicznej w Tarnowie, (2 (25)), 185-193.
66. Saiz, B. S., & Pilorge, P. (2012). Understanding Customer Behavior in Retail Banking: The İmpact of the Credit Crisis Across Europe, Ernst&Young.
67. Saunders, M., Lewis, P. H. I. L. I. P., & Thornhill, A. D. R. I. A. N. (2007). Research methods. Business Students 4th edition Pearson Education Limited, England.
68. Saunders, M., Lewis, P. & Thornhill, A. (2012). Research Methods for Business Students. 6th edition, Pearson Education Limited.
69. Scholtens, B. (2006). Finance as a driver of corporate social responsibility. Journal of business ethics, 68(1), 19-33.
70. Sirdeshmukh, D., Singh, J., & Sabol, B. (2002). Consumer trust, value, and loyalty in relational exchanges. Journal of marketing, 66(1), 15-37.
71. Smprini, V.A. and Ouzouni, F.M. (2009). Financial Performance and Corporate Social Responsibility: An Empirical Investigation in the Banking Industry. International Hellenic University, pp.1-39, Assessed on 18th March 2014, available at: http://www.ihu.edu.gr/gateway/expertise/publications/pub000071.html
72. Soiferman, L. K. (2010). Compare and Contrast Inductive and Deductive Research Approaches. Online Submission.
73. Stanaland, A. J., Lwin, M. O., & Murphy, P. E. (2011). Consumer perceptions of the antecedents and consequences of corporate social responsibility. Journal of business ethics, 102(1), 47-55.
74. Steiner, G. A., & Steiner, J. F. (1991). Business, government and society (pp. 230-41). New York.
75. Tauringana, V., & Chithambo, L. (2015). The effect of DEFRA guidance on greenhouse gas disclosure. The British Accounting Review, 47(4), 425-444.
76. Venturelli, A., Cosma, S., & Leopizzi, R. (2018). Stakeholder engagement: An evaluation of European banks. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 25(4), 690-703.
77. Wu, M. W., Shen, C. H., & Chen, T. H. (2017). Application of multi-level matching between financial performance and corporate social responsibility in the banking industry. Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, 49(1), 29-63.
78. Xanthopoulou, P. (2015). How crisis affects Corporate Social Responsibility in Greece. Business and Social Science Research Conference: Paris 2015
Copyright (c) 2022 Panagiota Xanthopoulou, Sahinidis Alexandros, Stremmenou Katerina
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.