The Impact of Mobile Technology on Consumers’ Charitable Behaviors: a Research Protocol

  • Hasna Agourram Faculty of Business Administration, Marketing Department, Laval University, Quebec, Canada
  • Hafid Agourram Williams School of Business, IT Departement, Bishop’s University, Quebec, Canada
Keywords: Mobile app design


Mobile sales have increased over the past decade. In today's online retail environment, the mobile channel has the added potential to bring greater value to the retail value chain. While researchers have examined a number of factors contributing to the success of mobile technology in the context of for-profit businesses, the benefits of the mobile channel remain largely untapped by organizations in the third sector – those outside the public and private sectors. Such organizations known as non-profits include voluntary and community organizations, cooperatives, and registered charities. Focusing specifically on charities, this article explores the impact of mobile technology on individuals’ charitable intentions. Because the design of mobile apps influences both usability and functionality, we believe that their successful implementation can help charities not only increase their visibility but also attract more donations. This research proposes the use of the color green in a mobile app as a way to improve user browsing time on the charity’s application. It is also proposed that the best time to target donors (existing and potential) is when they go to bed, otherwise known as “bedtime”. Accordingly, the use of the color green in the conceptualization of a charity’s mobile app significantly improves the user’s attention when navigating the app and ultimately positively affects their intention to donate. To illustrate this research protocol, we developed a conceptual framework for improving donation behavior; this framework will be tested through online studies. This research proposal has the potential to add much to the existing literature on multi-channel marketing and, in particular, on the impact of the mobile channel on consumers’ donation behaviors towards charitable organizations.


Download data is not yet available.


1. Akers, A., Barton, J., Cossey, R., Gainsford, P., Griffin, M., & Micklewright, D. (2012). Visual Color Perception in Green Exercise: Positive Effects on Mood and Perceived Exertion. Environmental Science & Technology, 46(16), 8661–8666.
2. Anurag. (2020, October 03). 10 Key Metrics to Measure User Engagement in Mobile Apps. Retrieved from
3. Brand Crowd. (2020, August 23). 55 Famous Green Logos Of Big Brands. BrandCrowd Blog.
4. Beck, N., & Rygl, D. (2015). Categorization of multiple channel retailing in Multi-, Cross-, and Omni‐Channel Retailing for retailers and retailing. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services,27, 170-178. doi:10.1016/j.jretconser.2015.08.001
5. Bonnardel, N., Piolat, A., & Bigot, L. L. (2011, December 13). The impact of colour on Website appeal and users' cognitive processes. Retrieved from
6. Bytyci, S. (2020). Influence of Colors as a Key Element in Consumer Marketing. Expert Journal of Marketing, 8(1), 41–47.çi41-47.pdf
7. Cambra-Fierro, J., Kamakura, W. A., Melero-Polo, I., & Sese, F. J. (2016). Are multichannel customers really more valuable? An analysis of banking services. International Journal of Research in Marketing. doi:10.1016/j.ijresmar.2015.12.006
8. Cao, L., Liu, X., & Cao, W. (2018). The Effects of Search-Related and Purchase-Related Mobile App Additions on Retailers’ Shareholder Wealth: The Roles of Firm Size, Product Category, and Customer Segment. Journal of Retailing, 94(4), 343–351.
9. Chang, C., & Zhang, J. Z. (2016). The Effects of Channel Experiences and Direct Marketing on Customer Retention in Multichannel Settings. Journal of Interactive Marketing,36, 77-90. doi:10.1016/j.intmar.2016.05.002
10. Chu, A., & Rahman, O. (2010). What color is sustainable? Examining the eco-friendliness of color. International Foundation of Fashion Technology Institutes Conference,36-49.
11. Dzulkifli, M. A., & Mustafar, M. F. (2013). The Influence of Colour on Memory Performance: A Review. The Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences, 20(2), 3–9.
12. Elliot, A. J. (2015). Color and psychological functioning: a review of theoretical and empirical work. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 1–8.
13. Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, Attitude, Intention and Behavior: An Introduction to Theory and Research (Addison-Wesley series in social psychology). Addison-Wesley.
14. Fisher, J. (2021, August 20). Council Post: How Millennials and gen Z are revolutionizing the Philanthropic World. Forbes. Retrieved from
15. Flavián, C., Gurrea, R., & Orús, C. (2020). Combining channels to make smart purchases: The role of webrooming and showrooming. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services,52, 101923. doi:10.1016/j.jretconser.2019.101923
16. Hübner, A., Wollenburg, J., & Holzapfel, A. (2016). Retail logistics in the transition from multi-channel to omni-channel. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management,46(6/7), 562-583. doi:10.1108/ijpdlm-08-2015-0179
17. Hult, G. T., Sharma, P. N., Morgeson, F. V., & Zhang, Y. (2019). Antecedents and Consequences of Customer Satisfaction: Do They Differ Across Online and Offline Purchases? Journal of Retailing,95(1), 10-23. doi:10.1016/j.jretai.2018.10.003
18. Grewal, D., Noble, S. M., Roggeveen, A. L., & Nordfalt, J. (2019). The future of in-store technology. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 48(1), 96–113.
19. Kang, J.-Y. M. (2018). Showrooming, Webrooming, and user-generated content creation in the omnichannel era. Journal of Internet Commerce, 17(2), 145–169.
20. Kaya, N., & Epps, H. H. (2004). Color-emotion associations: Past experience and personal preference. AIC 2004 Color and Paints, Interim Meeting of the International Color Association, Proceedings, 31–34.
21. Khandelwal, S. (2020, June 19). Efficacy of mindfulness meditation intervention on Mental Health during the times of covid-19. SSRN. Retrieved from
22. Labrecque, L. I. (2020). Color research in marketing: Theoretical and technical considerations for conducting rigorous and impactful color research. Psychology & Marketing, 37(7), 855–863.
23. Labrecque, L. I., & Milne, G. R. (2012). Exciting red and competent blue: the importance of color in marketing. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 40(5), 711–727.
24. Lee, S., Srinivasan, V., & Rao, S. (2010). Color and store choice in electronic commerce: The explanatory role of trust. Journal of Electronic Commerce Research,11(2)
25. Lee, N. Y., Noble, S. M., & Biswas, D. (2018). Hey big spender! A golden (color) atmospheric effect on tipping behavior. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 46(2), 317–337.
26. Leonhardt, M. (2020, September 30). Nearly 3 out of 4 millennials have donated money during the pandemic. CNBC. Retrieved from
27. Li, C.-Y. (2018). Consumer behavior in switching between membership cards and mobile applications: The case of Starbucks. Computers in Human Behavior, 84, 171–184.
28. Liu, H., Lobschat, L., Verhoef, P. C., & Zhao, H. (2019). App Adoption: The Effect on Purchasing of Customers Who Have Used a Mobile Website Previously. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 47, 16–34.
29. McDiarmid, J. (2015, August). What the Colour of Your Logo Says About Your Business - Canadian Business. Canadian Business - Your Source For Business News.
30. Merchant, A., Ford, J. B., & Sargeant, A. (2010). Charitable organizations storytelling influence on donors emotions and intentions. Journal of Business Research,63(7), 754-762. doi:10.1016/j.jbusres.2009.05.013
31. Payne, E. M., Peltier, J. W., & Barger, V. A. (2017). Omni-channel marketing, integrated marketing communications and consumer engagement. Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing,11(2), 185-197. doi:10.1108/jrim-08-2016-0091
32. Peer, E., Brandimarte, L., Samat, S., & Acquisti, A. (2017). Beyond the turk: Alternative platforms for crowdsourcing behavioral research. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 70, 153–163.
33. Peer, E., Rothschild, D., Gordon, A., Evernden, Z., & Damer, E. (2021). Data quality of platforms and panels for online behavioral research. Behavior Research Methods.
34. Petro, G. (2021, December 10). Gen Z is emerging as the sustainability generation. Forbes. Retrieved from
35. Schneider, D. (2020, August 27). Session duration - what is it and how to increase it. Similarweb. Retrieved from
36. Shakir Goraya, M. A., Zhu, J., Akram, M. S., Shareef, M. A., Malik, A., & Bhatti, Z. A. (2022). The impact of channel integration on consumers’ channel preferences: Do showrooming and webrooming behaviors matter? Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 65, 102130.
37. Shi, S., Wang, Y., Chen, X., & Zhang, Q. (2020). Conceptualization of omnichannel customer experience and its impact on shopping intention: A mixed-method approach. International Journal of Information Management,50, 325-336. doi:10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2019.09.001
38. Siemens, J. C., Raymond, M. A., Choi, Y., & Choi, J. (2020). The influence of message appeal, social norms and donation social context on charitable giving: investigating the role of cultural tightness-looseness. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 28(2), 187–195.
39. The Giving Report 2020: CanadaHelps - Donate to any charity in Canada. (2020, March 25). Retrieved from
40. Tullin, L. (2021, July 15). Summer giving: The latest donor insights from Enthuse - Enthuse: Branded fundraising for charities. Enthuse. Retrieved from
41. Van Heerde, H. J., Dinner, I. M., & Neslin, S. A. (2019). Engaging the unengaged customer: The value of a retailer mobile app. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 36(3), 420–438.
42. Verhagen, T., Dolen, W., & Merikivi, J. (2018). The influence of in‐store personnel on online store value: An analogical transfer perspective. Psychology & Marketing,36(3), 161-174. doi:10.1002/mar.21172
43. Vladasel, T. L., Parker, S., Sloof, R., & Van Praag, M. (2020). Striking a balance: Revenue drift, incentives, and effort allocation in social enterprises. Academy of Management Proceedings, 2020(1), 12464.
44. Wagner, G., Schramm-Klein, H., & Steinmann, S. (2020). Online retailing across e-channels and e-channel touchpoints: Empirical studies of consumer behavior in the multichannel e-commerce environment. Journal of Business Research,107, 256-270. doi:10.1016/j.jbusres.2018.10.048
45. Whitfield, T. W., and Wiltshire, T. J. (1990). Color psychology: a critical review. Gen. Soc. Gen. Psychol. 116, 385–411.
46. Zhang, S., Pauwels, K., & Peng, C. (2019). The Impact of Adding Online-to-Offline Service Platform Channels on Firms’ Offline and Total Sales and Profits. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 47, 115–128.
How to Cite
Agourram, H., & Agourram, H. (2022). The Impact of Mobile Technology on Consumers’ Charitable Behaviors: a Research Protocol. European Scientific Journal, ESJ, 18(22), 1.
ESJ Social Sciences