Tuberculosis in Vaccinated versus Unvaccinated Children with BCG Vaccine in Niamey: Epidemiological, Diagnostic and Outcome Aspects

  • Samaila Aboubacar Service de Pédiatrie, Hôpital National Amirou Boubacar Diallo de Niamey, Niger Faculté des Sciences de la Santé, Université Abdou Moumouni de Niamey, Niger
  • Soumana Alido Service de Pédiatrie, Hôpital National Amirou Boubacar Diallo de Niamey, Niger Faculté des Sciences de la Santé, Université Abdou Moumouni de Niamey, Niger
  • Kamaye Moumouni Faculté des Sciences de la Santé, Université Abdou Moumouni de Niamey, Niger. Service de Pédiatrie A, Hôpital National de Niamey, Niger
  • Mamoudou Abdou Djafar Service de Pédiatrie, Hôpital National Amirou Boubacar Diallo de Niamey, Niger
  • Garba Moumouni Service de Pédiatrie A, Hôpital National de Niamey, Niger
  • Gagara Issoufou Madougou Assiatou Service de Pneumo-phtisiologie, Hôpital National Amirou Boubacar Diallo de Niamey, Niger
  • Moussa Ounteini Abasse Service de Pneumo-phtisiologie, Hôpital National Amirou Boubacar Diallo de Niamey, Niger
  • Marou Soumana Boubacar Faculté des Sciences de la Santé, Université Abdou Moumouni de Niamey, Niger
  • Ide Amadou Habiba Service de Pédiatrie, Hôpital National Amirou Boubacar Diallo de Niamey, Niger
  • Nanaito Nafissatou Service de Pédiatrie, Hôpital National Amirou Boubacar Diallo de Niamey, Niger
  • Georges Thomas Ibrahim Faculté des Sciences de la Santé, Université André Salifou de Zinder, Niger
Keywords: BCG vaccination; Children; Tuberculosis; Niger

Abstract

Introduction: Tuberculosis remains a public health problem worldwide. The BCG vaccination is one of response means. The objective of this work was to study impact of BCG vaccination on morbidity and mortality related to childhood tuberculosis in Niamey. Patients and methods: It was a multicenter prospective and comparative study from January to September 2017 in two-referral hospital centers of Niamey and the National Anti-Tuberculosis Center. The study population consisted exhaustively of children aged 0 to 15 years old suffering from tuberculosis. Epidemiological, diagnostic and evolving aspects in vaccinated and unvaccinated children were studied. Statistical tests used were Pearson's Chi² and Fisher's exact test (p <0.05). Results: Ninety-one children were studied. The BCG vaccination rate was 60.4%. The mean age of children was 6 years 11 months [3 months-15 years]. Children under 2 years of age were less affected (11%) in vaccinated children than in unvaccinated children (3.2%). No association was found between duration of tuberculosis signs (p = 0.37), expression of tuberculin skin test (p = 0.43), and the children's BCG vaccination status. On the other hand, there was a significant link between vaccination status and the results of microscopic examination of sputum or gastric fluid (p = 0.02), occurrence of complications (p = 0.014) and death risk (p = 0.003). Conclusion: This study shows that children’s BCG vaccination status interferes with some aspects of tuberculosis. Therefore, fighting against tuberculosis must be intensified, through combination of many strategies including vaccination.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

1. Abubakar, I., Pimpin, L., Ariti, C., Beynon, R., Mangtani, P., Sterne, J.A.C., Fine, P.E.M., Smith, P.G., Lipman, M., Elliman, D., Watson, J.M., Drumright, L.N., Whiting, P.F., Vynnycky E. & Rodrigues L.C. (2013). Systematic review and meta-analysis of the current evidence on the duration of protection by bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination against tuberculosis. Health Technol Assess, 17(37), 1–372.
2. Ba, I.D., Ba, A., Faye, P.M., Thiongane, A., Deme Ly, I. & Ba, M. (2015). Tuberculose de l’enfant au Sénégal : Aspects épidémiologiques, cliniques, thérapeutiques et évolutifs. Med Afr Noire, 62(4), 200-207.
3. Bourdin, B., Fine, P.E. & Dye, C. (2006). Effect of BCG vaccination on childhood tuberculous meningitis and miliary tuberculosis worldwide: a meta-analysis and assessment of cost-effectiveness. Lancet, 367, 1173-80.
4. Favorov, M., Ali, M., Tursunbayeva, A., Aitmagambetova, I., Kilgore, P., Ismailov, S. & Chorba, T. (2012). Comparative Tuberculosis (TB) Prevention Effectiveness in Children of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) Vaccines from Different Sources, Kazakhstan. PLoS ONE, 7(3), e32567.
5. Grare, M., Derelle, J., Dailloux, M. & Laurain, C. (2010). Difficultés du diagnostic de la tuberculose chez l’enfant : intérêt du test Quantiféron TB GoldWIn-Tube. Arch Pediatr, 17, 77–85.
6. Harris, R.C., Dodd, P.J. & White, R.G. (2016). The potential impact of BCG vaccine supply shortages on global paediatric tuberculosis mortality. BMC Medicine, 14, 138-47.
7. Ministère de la Sante Publique, Programme National de Lutte contre la Tuberculose., 2017. Guide technique national de la tuberculose, 3ème édition. PNLT, Niamey.
8. Moran, M.O., Marion, S.A., Elwood, K., Patrick, D. & Fitz, G.M. (2010). Facteurs de risque de développement de la tuberculose : un suivi des sujets-contact de cas de tuberculose pendant 12 années. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis, 14(9), 1112–1119.
9. O.M.S. (2016). Rapport sur la lutte contre la tuberculose dans le monde. OMS, Genève.
10. Randrianambinina, F., Randrianambinina, H., Razafimanjato, N.N., Rakotoarisoa, J.C. & Rakotovao, J.L. (2015). Aspects chirurgicaux des complications des tuberculoses pulmonaire et pleurale de l’enfant. J Func Vent Pulm, 19(6), 31-38.
11. Randriatsarafara, F.M., Vololonarivelo, E.B.E., Rabemananjara, G.N.N., Randrianasolo, O.J.B., Rakotomanga, J.D.M. & Randrianarimanana, V.D. (2014). Facteurs associés à la tuberculose chez l’enfant au Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Mère-Enfant de Tsaralalàna, Antananarivo: une étude cas-témoins. PAM J, 19, 224-237.
12. Schmiedel, Y. & Zimmerli, S. (2015). Tuberculose : prévention, latence et multirésistance. Forum Médical Suisse, 15(41), 918-924.
13. Seddon, J.A., Paton, J., Nademi, Z., Keane, D., Williams, B., Williams, A., Welch, S.B., Liebeschutz, S., Riddell, A., Bernatoniene, J., Patel, S., Martinez-Alier, N., McMaster, P. & Kampmann, B. (2016). The impact of BCG vaccination on tuberculin skin test responses in children is age dependent: evidence to be considered when screening children for tuberculosis infection. Thorax, 71, 932–939.
14. Sfaihi, L., Bouraoui, A., Kalamoun, I., Kammoun, T., Jallouli, H., Akrout, A. & Hachicha, M., (2010). La tuberculose extrapulmonaire chez les enfants vaccinés par le BCG dans le sud tunisien. J Pediatr Puericult, 23, 328-334.
15. Soumana, A., Kamaye, M., Ngoumbouté, I., Dima, H., Daouda, B. & Guéro, T. (2016). La tuberculose chez l'enfant: A propos de 29 cas colligés dans deux hôpitaux de Niamey et au Centre National Antituberculeux. Mali Médical, 31(4), 1-8.
16. Tinsa, F., Essaddam, L., Fitouri, Z., Nouira, F., Douira, W., Ben Becher, S., Boussetta, K. & Bousnina, S. (2009). Tuberculose extra-pulmonaire chez l’enfant: étude de 41 cas. La Tunisie Médicale, 87(10), 693-698.
17. Valin, N. & Chouaïd, C. (2012). La tuberculose en France en 2010 : épidémiologie, clinique et microbiologie. Rev Mal Resp, 29, 267-76.
Published
2022-09-20
How to Cite
Aboubacar, S., Alido, S., Moumouni, K., Djafar, M. A., Moumouni, G., Madougou Assiatou, G. I., Abasse, M. O., Boubacar, M. S., Habiba, I. A., Nafissatou, N., & Ibrahim, G. T. (2022). Tuberculosis in Vaccinated versus Unvaccinated Children with BCG Vaccine in Niamey: Epidemiological, Diagnostic and Outcome Aspects. European Scientific Journal, ESJ, 9, 208. Retrieved from https://eujournal.org/index.php/esj/article/view/15827
Section
ESI Preprints