Détermination Des Formules D’engrais Minéraux Et Organiques Sur Deux Types De Sols Pour Une Meilleure Productivité De Maïs (Zea mays l.) Dans La Commune De Banikoara (Nord-Est Du Bénin)
The land degradation in Benin becomes a major concern for the durability of the production systems. For a better maize productivity in the North of the country, the experimentation was carried out during the production season 2012-2013, on two soil types: concretionned ferruginous tropical soil and hydromorphic ferruginous tropical soil. The objective was to validate in farmer’s condition, the different mineral and organo-mineral formulas simulated by DSSAT model in order to improve EVDT-ETR- 97 maize grain yield in northern Benin. The experimental design for this experiment was a complete randomized bloc design with four replications. The ten treatments of experiment were essentially the N-P-K formula (115- 30-75; 88-30-35; 88-30-35-manure; 42-30-35-manure; 74-20-23; 74-20-23- manure; 51-20-23; 51-20-23-manure; 0-0-0; 0-0-0-manure). Maize grain yields were subjected to two-way analysis of variance (soil type and fertilizer formula). The results show that compared to hydromorphic tropical ferruginous soils , the concretionned tropical ferruginous soils have increased yield grain harvest by 16.50%. In addition, the simulated doses of N, P and K (88-30-35 and 42-30-35-dung-manure) have induced the high yields respectively 5353.67 ± 844.39 and 3391 ± 533 65 kg / ha. The contribution of organo-mineral fertilizers through cow dung was positive on the improvement of the maize yield. The formula N88P30K35-manureinduced an increase of 10.51% compared to the N88P30K35 combination. On the other hand, the N42P30K35F treatment increased the yield of 13.06% compared to N42P30K35. Also, the results indicated that the yield of maize grain varied significantly depending on the soil type and applied treatments. In conclusion, the contribution of organic manure improved the fertility level of soils studied and the maize productivity.