Challenges of the 21st Century in European Continent: Terrorism and Migration

  • Maria Bordas Full professor at University of Public Service Ludovika, Budapest, Hungary
  • Janos Tomolya Political and security analyst in the OSCE SMM to Ukraine
Keywords: Terrorism, migration wave, European Union, populism, rightwing extremism

Abstract

At the beginning of the twenty-first century, Europe faced new challenges. These new challenges communicated in this study address two issues, terrorism, and migration. Firstly, this study seeks to answer the question, if is there a direct link between migration and terrorism using the research methodology of data collection and analysis, also, what are the secondary links between terrorism outside Europe and migration to Europe. Secondly, based upon the qualitative methodology of research, this study is analyzing European terrorism and migration to European countries with respect to how these two phenomena have affected migration policies, and governments' counter-terrorism actions. Finally, this paper tries to find an answer to the dilemma of a stricter, more restrictive migration policy versus effective fight against terrorism. This paper shows that while it is true that one root cause of migration is the threat of terror, nevertheless terror itself is not an inexplicable phenomenon or "final cause”, but a consequence of numerous roots causes.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

1. European Commission EMN Country Factsheet: COUNTRY FACTSHEET: Hungary 2015 EUROPEAN MIGRATION NETWORK. page 1
2. Gustave Gilbert: Interview in Hermann Goering’s jail cell, April 18, 1946. "Nuremberg Diary". Published by Hachette Books New York, NY, United States, ISBN 0306806614.
3. Ilya Somin: Does the Threat of Terrorism Justify Migration Restrictions? 30/03/2022 Downloaded from https://verfassungsblog.de/os5-migration-restrictions/
4. Marc Helbling and Daniel Meierrieks: terrorism and Migration: An Overview British Journal of Political Science (2022), 52, 977–996 Downloaded from https://www.cambridge.org/core/services/aop-cambridge-core/content/view/2D92D099D870D7D8E606C39E683D3E89/S0007123420000587a.pdf/terrorism_and_migration_an_overview.pdf
5. Philip Oltermann: How Angela Merkel’s great migrant gamble paid off, The Guardian, 30 August 2020. Downloaded from the website https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/aug/30/angela-merkel-great-migrant-gamble-paid-off
6. Samer Serawan: Refugees in Germany Deutsche Welle, 26/08/2020. Downloaded from the website https://www.dw.com/en/merkel-germany-refugees/a-54769229
7. EUROPOL: European Union Terrorism Situation and Trend Report TESAT 2016, 20 July 2016. p.10. Downloaded from https://www.europol.europa.eu/activities-services/main-reports/european-union-terrorism-situation-and-trend-report-te-sat-2016
8. PABLO GORONDI: Hungary’s Orban says EU didn’t learn from terror attacks, https://apnews.com/article/268b8594525b47828e083e950e2d4ff4
9. MATTHEW KAMINSKI: All the terrorists are migrants. Politico, November 23, 2015. Downloaded from https://www.politico.eu/article/viktor-orban-interview-terrorists-migrants-eu-russia-putin-borders-schengen/
10. Laurens Cerulus, Sarah Wheaton: Belgium sets up minority government after migration dispute breaks coalition. Politico, 9 December 2018. Downloaded from the website https://www.politico.eu/article/belgium-sets-up-minority-government-after-migration-dispute-breaks-coalition/
11. Eyes on Europe: Explaining the main drivers of anti-immigration attitudes in Europe, 30 November 2020. Downloaded from the website https://www.eyes-on-europe.eu/explaining-the-main-drivers-of-anti-immigration-attitudes-in-europe/
12. League of Arab States: The Arab convention for the suppression of terrorism adapted by Council of Arab Ministers of Interior and Justice, Cairo April 1998, downloaded from the website https://www.unodc.org/images/t0ldb-f/conv_arab_terrorism.en.pdf
13. UN Security Council resolution 1566, 8 October 2004, downloaded from the website https://www.un.org/ruleoflaw/files/n0454282.pdf
14. Council Common Position of 27 December 2001 on the application of specific measures to combat terrorism. (2001/931/CFSP). Downloaded from the website https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=celex%3A32001E0931
15. NATO Military Committee MC 0472/1, 06 January 2016
16. Yassin Musharbash: The Globalization of Far-Right Extremism: An Investigative Report, July/August 2021, Volume 14, Issue 6. Published by Combating Terrorism Center at West Point. Downloaded from the website https://ctc.usma.edu/the-globalization-of-far-right-extremism-an-investigative-report/
17. The United Nations Counter-Terrorism Committee Executive Directorate: CTED Alert 2020, Member States Concerned by the Growing and Increasingly Transnational threat of Extreme Right-Wing Terrorism, April 2020, page 3.
18. Seth G. Jones: The evolution of the Salafi-Jihadist threat. Current and Future Challenges from the Islamic State, Al-Qaeda, and Other Groups. A report of the CSIS Transnational Threats Project November 20, 2020, Center for Strategic and International Studies. Washington, USA.
19. Seth G. Jones, Charles Vallee, Danika Newlee, Nicholas Harrington, Clayton Sharb, Hannah Byrne: The Evolution of the Salafi-Jihadist Threat Current and Future Challenges from the Islamic State, Al-Qaeda, and Other Groups, Center for International Studies, November 2018. pp 6-9.
20. EUROPOL EE Terrorism and Situation yearly Reports 2012-2021. The reports downloaded from the website https://www.europol.europa.eu/activities-services/main-reports/eu-terrorism-situation-and-trend-report#fndtn-tabs-0-bottom-2
21. EUROPOL: European Union Terrorism Situation and Trend Report 2021, page 8 Downloaded from https://www.europol.europa.eu/cms/sites/default/files/documents/tesat_2021_0.pdf
22. The Institute for Economics & Peace (IEP): Global Terrorism Index 2022 Measuring the impact of terrorism, Sydney, March 2022. page 4
23. Jon Henley: Paris attacks: EU in emergency talks on border crackdown, The Guardian, 20 November 2015. Downloaded from the website https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/nov/20/paris-attacks-france-launches-un-push-for-unified-declaration-of-war-on-isis
24. UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division: World Population Prospect 2019 Highlights. ST/ESA/SER.A/423. ISBN: 978-92-1-148316-1 page 12.
25. Planned Parenthood Federation of America: Birth Control – History of the Pill, page 4. Downloaded from the website https://www.plannedparenthood.org/files/1514/3518/7100/Pill_History_FactSheet.pdf
26. United Nation Population Division: World population growth Downloaded from the website https://ourworldindata.org/world-population-growth
27. UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division: World Population Prospect 2019 Highlights. ST/ESA/SER.A/423. ISBN: 978-92-1-148316-1 page 12.
28. Federico Carril‐Caccia, Jordi Paniagua and Francisco Requena: Asylum Migration, Borders, and Terrorism in a Structural Gravity Model. 2021, Politics and Governance (ISSN: 2183–2463) Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 146–158
29. UN Migration, International Organization for Migration: World Migration Report 2020, Switzerland, ISSN 1561-5502. p.20.
30. UNHCR Turkey - Fact Sheet September 2021.Downloaded from https://reliefweb.int/report/turkey/unhcr-turkey-fact-sheet-september-2021-entr?gclid=Cj0KCQjw3v6SBhCsARIsACyrRAk5mHJkDQ7hsYZ11IjVkSX99gnPT3PnUwB-3oPhGHnTvuMwarRByu8aAvFvEALw_wcB
31. Vincenzo Bove and Tobias Böhmelt: How migration policies moderate the diffusion of terrorism? European Journal of Political Research. Number 2 February 2020. pages 160-181
32. Michael T.Light and Julia T.Thomas: Undocumented immigration and terrorism: Is there a connection? Social Science Research, Volume 94, February 2021, pages 20-31 Downloaded from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0049089X20301101
33. Swissinfo Foreign Affairs: Switzerland and Austria want to strengthen cooperation on migration and security, they said on Tuesday. February 01, 2022, Downloaded from https://www.swissinfo.ch/eng/bern-and-vienna-vow-to-boost-cooperation-on-migrants-and-terrorism/47311948
34. Planned Parenthood Federation of America: Birth Control – History of the Pill, page 4. Downloaded from the website https://www.plannedparenthood.org/files/1514/3518/7100/Pill_History_FactSheet.pdf
35. United Nation Population Division: World population growth Downloaded from the website https://ourworldindata.org/world-population-growth
36. REUERHC (“Reinforce EU economies, reinforcing human capital”): Guide for Integration. Action n. 2018-1-IT01-KA202-006739) – in the framework of the European programme “Erasmus Plus KA2 Strategic Partnerships for VET”. 2018. page 5
37. The 1951 United Nations Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, downloaded from https://www.unhcr.org/about-us/background/4ec262df9/1951-convention-relating-status-refugees-its-1967-protocol.html
38. IOM Migration Report 2020. Downloaded from the website https://publications.iom.int/system/files/pdf/wmr_2020.pdf
39. International Organization for Migration UN Migration: World Migration Report 2022 page 19 Downloaded from https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/WMR-2022-EN.pdf
40. Elspeth Guild: Schengen Borders and Multiple National States of Emergency: From Refugees to Terrorism to COVID-19. European Journal of Migration and Law, 21 December 2021 pages 385-404. Downloaded from file:///C:/Users/jtomo/Downloads/[15718166%20-%20European%20Journal%20of%20Migration%20and%20Law]%20Schengen%20Borders%20and%20Multiple%20National%20States%20of%20Emergency_%20From%20Refugees%20to%20Terrorism%20to%20COVID-19.pdf
41. UNHCR Global Trends forced displacement person, 2020. p.3 downloaded from the website https://www.unhcr.org/uk/statistics/unhcrstats/60b638e37/global-trends-forced-displacement-2020.html
42. European Commission: European Political Strategy Center,10 trends shaping migration. Downloaded from the website https://ec.europa.eu/home-affairs/sites/default/files/10_trends_shaping_migration.pdf
43. The graphic designed by the author, the used database is the Eurostat immigration database, downloaded from the website http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/data/database
44. Richard Wike, Jacob Poushter, Laura Silver, Kate Devlin, Janell Fetterolf, Alexander Castillo, Christine Huang: Minority Groups: Pew Research Center. 14 October 2019 Downloaded from https://www.pewresearch.org/global/2019/10/14/minority-groups/
45. Killian Foubert and Ils Ruyssen UNU-CRIS Working paper Series nr 7 September 2021 page 25 Downloaded from https://cris.unu.edu/sites/cris.unu.edu/files/WP21.07%20-%20Foubert%20and%20Ruyssen.pdf
46. Refugees fleeing Ukraine (since 24 February 2022)". UNHCR. 2022. Downloaded from https://data2.unhcr.org/en/situations/ukraine
47. Lauren Turner: Migrant crisis: Migration to Europe explained in seven charts BBC NEWS 4 March 2016 Downloaded from https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-34131911
Published
2022-05-31
How to Cite
Bordas, M., & Tomolya, J. (2022). Challenges of the 21st Century in European Continent: Terrorism and Migration. European Scientific Journal, ESJ, 18(16), 67. https://doi.org/10.19044/esj.2022.v18n16p67
Section
ESJ Humanities