Effet comparé de la fertilisation à base de biochar, engrais organique et engrais chimique sur les éléments minéraux et la production de l’oignon (Allium cepa L.)

  • Moustapha Maman Mounirou Université d’Ankara, Ankara, Turquie
Keywords: Biochar, matière organique, fertilisation, oignon, NPK

Abstract

Au cours des dernières décennies, il y a de plus en plus des études universitaires sur l'importance du biochar. Ce dernier constitue un moyen efficace pour la valorisation des déchets agricoles et forestiers. Cette étude qui s’inscrit dans le même contexte a pour objectif principal de déterminer les effets combinés du fumier de chèvre (FC, 5 t ha-1) et de son biochar (BC 10 t ha-1) sur l'efficacité d'utilisation des engrais chimiques (EC) sous différents ratios (100%, 50% et 0%), avec la variété d’oignon Metan 88. Pour ce faire, des essais ont été conduits en plein champ, dans le Centre de Recherche Horticole (CRH Ayas) de l’Université d'Ankara. En effet, le dispositif expérimental est un bloc complet randomisé comportant douze (12) traitements en quatre (4) répétitions, soit quarante-huit (48) parcelles. Les différentes mesures et analyses effectuées ont permis la détermination des paramètres tels que ; le poids frais et sec, le rendement total, la chlorophylle relative, l’acide ascorbique, ainsi que les concentrations des N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu et Mn. Les résultats obtenus ont montré que le rendement total de l'oignon a augmenté de manière significative avec l'application du biochar, du fumier ainsi que leur combinaison. Tous les traitements d'engrais organiques et inorganiques ont considérablement augmenté les concentrations en N, P et K respectivement 38,8, 2,81 et 42,2 g Kg-1 par rapport aux témoins 33,8, 2,32 et 35,6 g Kg-1. Les  concentrations en Ca et Mg respectivement 7,31 et 6,69 g kg-1 ont été augmentées avec l'engrais organique par rapport aux témoins 6,43 et 5,10 g kg-1. Le Biochar et le fumier ont donné la concentration la plus élevée de chlorophylle relative avec 297 et 294 respectivement. En conclusion , la combinaison du BC+FC a permis d’obtenir une croissance optimale de l’oignon.

 

In recent decades, numerous academic studies were carried out in order to determine the importance of biochar. The latter constitutes an effective means for valuing the agricultural and forestry waste. The main objective of the present study was to determine the combined effects of goat manure (GM, 5 t ha-1) and its biochar (BC 10 t ha-1) on use efficiency of chemical fertilizers (CF) in different ratios (100%, 50% and 0%), in the Metan 88 variety of onion.  The , trials were carried out in the open field at the Horticultural Research Center at Ankara University. The experimental device is a complete randomized block comprising twelve (12) treatments in four (4) repetitions, forty-eight (48) plots. The various measurements and analyses carried out allowed the determination of parameters such as fresh and dry weight, total yield, relative chlorophyll, ascorbic acid, the concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn, as well  . The obtained results  showed that the total yield of onion increased significantly with biochar, manure as well as their combination. All organic and inorganic fertilizer treatments significantly increased N, P and K concentrations 38.8, 2.81 and 42.2 g Kg-1 respectively compared to controls 33.8, 2.32 and 35, 6g Kg-1. As for the concentrations of Ca and Mg 7.31 and 6.69 g kg-1 they were increased with the organic fertilizer compared to the controls 6.43 and 5.10 g kg-1 respectively.. Biochar and manure gave the highest concentration of relative chlorophyll with 297 and 294 respectively. Inconclusion , the combination of BC + CF resulted in optimal onion growth.

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Published
2022-07-31
How to Cite
Mounirou, M. M. (2022). Effet comparé de la fertilisation à base de biochar, engrais organique et engrais chimique sur les éléments minéraux et la production de l’oignon (Allium cepa L.). European Scientific Journal, ESJ, 18(24), 47. https://doi.org/10.19044/esj.2022.v18n24p47
Section
ESJ Natural/Life/Medical Sciences