Child Recruitment and Use during Armed Conflicts by Muslims between International Law and Islamic Law

  • Rebaz R. Khdir Postdoctoral Fellow, Faculty of Law, Complutense University of Madrid, Spain Lecturer in Public Law, School of Law, University of Raparin, Ranya, Iraq
Keywords: Child recruitment and use, international law, Islamic law, puberty, ta’zir crime, the ICC

Abstract

Child recruitment is an ancient military concept but a modern legal term. The term is defined as a war crime and includes the acts of conscription, enrolment or use of children below the age of 15 during armed conflict. According to the 2018 report of the UN Secretary General, most of the violations documented against children during armed conflicts, in 2017, were perpetrated by Muslims and the majority of the violations were the cases of military recruitment and use. Meanwhile, Islam guarantees the human rights of children and safeguards their protection from military involvement. The Islamic primary and secondary sources entail considerable and substantial evidence according to which people under the age of puberty are exempted from and not allowed to participate in battle. Yet, Muslims have often recruited and used children in deadly political and sectarian conflicts, and Islamic courts have never prosecuted anyone for such a practice. This article, based on comparative and descriptive analysis, argues that the Muslim states and groups that recruit and use children during armed conflicts are in violation of international law and Islamic law. Islamic law works in tandem with international law in the prohibition and criminalization of child recruitment and use.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

1. Abdal-Haqq, I. (2006). Islamic Law: An Overview of its Origin and Elements, In H M Ramadan (ed.) Understanding Islamic Law: From Classical to Contemporary. New York et al.: Alta Mira Press.
2. African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child (adopted July 11, 1990, entered into force November 29, 1999) OAU Doc CAB/LEG/24.9/49.
3. Agreement between the United Nations and the Government of Sierra Leone on the Establishment of a Special Court for Sierra Leone (signed January 16, 2002, entered into force April 12, 2002) 2178 UNTS 138.
4. Al-‘Anafi, ‘A. A. (2003). Badai’u al-Sanai’ fi Tartib al-Sharai’. Vol. 7. Beirut: Dar al-Ktub al-‘ilmiyah.
5. Al-Dardir, A. (1991). Al-Shar’u al-Sagir ‘la Aqrab al-Masalak ila Mazhab Imam Malik. Vol. 2. Cairo: Dar-al Ma’arf.
6. Al-Gamrawi, M. A. 1337 (1919). Al-Siraj al-Wahhaj ‘Shar’ Matn al-Manahij’. Beirut: Daru al-Mahrifah.
7. Ali Shaheen, S. & Rehman, J. (2005). The Concept of Jihad in Islamic International Law. Journal of Conflict & Security Law, 10 (3): 321-343.
8. Al-Jassas, A. (1980). Ahkam al-Qur’an. Vol. 2. Cairo: Dar al-Fikr.
9. Al-Jawazyyah, I. (2003). Provisionsfor the Hereafter (Mukhtasar Zad Al-Ma’ad). Riyadh: Darussalam.
10. Al-Jaziri, ‘A. (2003). Kitab al-Fiqh ‘la al-Mazahib al-Araba’a. Beirut: Dar al-Ktub al-‘ilmiya’.
11. Al-Mawardi, A. (1996). al-Ahkam as-Sultaniyyah: The Laws of Islamic Governance. Translated by Asadullah Yate. London: Ta-Ha Publishers Ltd.
12. Al-Salami, M. A. (1999). Al-Qiyas (Analogy) and Its Modern Application. Translated. by Mohammad Hashim Kamali. Jeddah: Islamic Research and Training Institute.
13. Al-Sa’imi, ‘B. (2008). Al-Jihad fi al-Islam: Mafhumahu wa Zawabtahu wa Anwa’ahu wa Ahdafahu. Medina: Dar al-Nasi’at et al.
14. Al-Shatbi, A. Al-Muwafaqat fi al-Usul al-Shari’ah. Vol. 2. Al-Khubar: Dar Ibn ‘Ffan.
15. Al-Sha’rawi, M. M. (1998). Al-Jihad fi al-Islam. Cairo: Maktabat al-Turath al-Islami.
16. Al-Tabari (2001). Tafsir al-Tabari: Jamih al-Bayan ‘an Ta’wil āi al-Quran. Vol. 6, 11. Cairo: The Centre for Arabic and Islamic Research and Study in Dar Hijr.
17. Al-Tusi, A. (1980). Al-Nihayah fi Mujarrad al-Fiqh wa al-Fatawa. 2 ed. Beirut: Dar al-Kitab al-‘Arabi.
18. Aroua, A. (2013). The Quest for Peace in the Islamic Tradition. Oslo: Kolofon Press.
19. Auda, J. (2007). Maqasid al-Shariah as Philosophy of Islamic Law: A Systems Approach. London et al.: The International Institute of Islamic Thought.
20. Bashir, S. (2011). Infanticide and Diminished Responsibility-In Conflict with International Human Rights Law and Islamic Legal Norms. Pakistan Journal of Islamic Research, 8: 45-60.
21. Bassiouni, C. (1997). Crimes and the Criminal Process. Arab Law Quarterly, 12 (3): 269-286.
22. Bennoune, K. (1994). As-Salāmu `Alaykum? Humanitarian Law in Islamic Jurisprudence. Michigan Journal of International Law, 15 (2): 605-643.
23. Benotman, N. & Malik, N. (2016). The Children of Islamic State. Quilliam. https://f.hypotheses.org/wp-content/blogs.dir/2725/files/2016/04/the-children-of-isla mic-state.pdf .
24. Bin Mar’i, M. ‘A. (2003). A’kam al-Mujahid bil-Nafs fi Sabil Lillah ‘Zza wa Jal fil al-Fiq al-Islami. Vol.1. Medina et al.: Maktabat al-‘lum wa al-‘km et al.
25. Bsoul, L. A. (2009). The Concept of Treaty in Islamic Jurisprudence: A Comparative View of The Classical Jurists. Journal of Islam in Asia, 6 (2): 1-32.
26. International Bureau for Children’s Rights (2011). Children and Armed Conflict: Guide on International Human Rights and Humanitarian Law on Children in Armed Conflict.http://www.ibcr.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/Guide-international-law-20 10-english-1.pdf.
27. Children and Armed Conflict (2018). Report of the Secretary General, UN General Assembly. May 16, Doc. A/72/865–S/2018/465.
28. Children in Islam: Their Care, Upbringing and Protection (2005). Al-Azhar University in cooperation with the United Nations Children’s Fund.
29. Doi, A. (1981). The Cardinal Principles of Islam. Zariah: Hudahuda.
30. Gazanfari, A. (2016). Snn Blug al-Mazkur fil al-Quran wa al-Sunnah min Wajhat Nazar al-Fuqaha. Journal for the Study of Social Sciences, 23 (1): 1-18.
31. Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War (Geneva Convention IV) (adopted August 12, 1949, entered into force October 21, 1950) 75 UNTS 287.
32. Hackenberg, M. L. (2000). Can the Optional Protocol for the Convention on the Rights of the Child Protect the Ugandan Child Soldier? IND. INT’L & COMP. L. REV, 10 (2): 417-455.
33. Hallaq, W. (2009). Shari’a: Theory, Practice, Transformations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
34. Hamid, T. (2008). Inside Jihad: Understanding and Confronting Radical Islam, self-published book.
35. Hawdah, ‘A. (1993). Al-Tashri' al-Jina'i al-Islami Muqaranan bi al-Qanun al-Wad'i. Vol. I. Beirut: Dar al-Kitab al-Arabi.
36. Ibn al-Qaiyem, S. (1994). Zad Al-Ma’ad Fi hady Khair Al-‘Ibad. Beirut: Mu’assasat al-Resalah.
37. Ibn al-Quddamah (1997). Al-Mughni. Vol. 13. Riyadh: Dar ‘Alam al-Ktub.
38. Ibn Hazm 1321 (1903). Al-Fasl fi al-Milal wa al-Ahwa’ wa al-Nihal. Vol. IV. Cairo: A.H.
39. Ibn Ishaq (2004). The Life of Muhammad. Translated. by A. Guillaume. Oxford et al.: Oxford University Press.
40. Ibn Kathir (1999). Tafsir al-Quran al-‘zim. Vol. 1, 2, 4. Riyadh: Dar Taibat.
41. Ibn Kathir (2000). The Battles of the Prophet. Translated by Wa'il 'Abdul Mut' aal Shihab. Egypt: Dar al-Manarah.
42. Ibn Rushd 1325 (1907). Al-Muqaddimat al-Mumahhidat. Vol. 1. Cairo: A.H.
43. International Committee of the Red Cross (1987). Commentary on the Additional Protocols of 8 June 1977 to the Geneva Convention of 12 August 1949. In: Sandoz, Yves and Swinarski, Christophe et al (eds.). Geneva: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
44. Izzi Dien, M. (2004). Islamic Law: From Historical Foundations to Contemporary Practices. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
45. Jami’ At-Tirmidhi, trans. (2007). Translated by Abu Khalyil. Vol. 2. Riyadh et al.: Darussalam.
46. Jihad: A Misunderstood Concept from Islam, A Judicial Ruling (fatwa) Issued by Shaykh Hisham Kabbani (Chairman, Islamic Supreme Council of America) and Shaykh Seraj Hendricks (Mufti, Cape Town, South Africa). The Islamic Supreme Council of America. http://islamicsupremecouncil.org/understanding-islam/legal-rulings/5-jihad-a-misunderstood-concept-from-islam.html.
47. Kalin, I. & Kamali, M. H. (eds.) (2013). War and Peace in Islam: Uses and Abuses of Jihad. Jordan: The Royal Islamic Strategic Studies Centre.
48. Khadduri, M. (1955). War and Peace in the Law of Islam. London: The Johns Hopkins Press.
49. Khdir, R. (2018). Jihād between Islamic Jurisprudence and Practice of the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria. European Scientific Journal, 14 (5): 40-54.
50. Khdir, R. (2017). The Fate of Prisoners of War between the Quran, Traditions of the Prophet Muhammad and Practice of the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria. European Scientific Journal, 13 (34): 30-47.
51. Leggiere, M. (2007). The Fall of Napoleon: The Allied Invasion of France 1813–1814. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
52. Lippman, M. (1989). Islamic Criminal Law and Procedure: Religious Fundamentalism v. Modern Law. Boston College International and Comparative Law Review, 12 (1): 29-62.
53. Maududi, A. (1980). Jihad in Islam. The Holy Quran Publishing House.
54. Moaddel, M. (2005). Islamic Modernism, Nationalism, and Fundamentalism: Episode and Discourse. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
55. Moussalli, A. (2009). Wahhabism, Salafism and Islamism: Who is the Enemy? Beirut et al.: Conflict Forum.
56. Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict (adopted May 25, 2000, entered into force February 12, 2002) 106 UN 37.
57. Promotion and Protection of the Rights of Children: Impact of Armed Conflict on Children (1996). The Report of the United Nations General Assembly, August 26.
58. Prosecutor v. Brima (2007). Kamara et al., Case No. SCSL-04-16-T (June 20).
59. Prosecutor v. Fofana (2003). Case No. SCSL-03-11-1 (June 24).
60. Prosecutor v. Kondewa (2003). Case No. SCSL-03-12-1 (June 24).
61. Prosecutor v. Lubanga Dyilo (2007). Case No. ICC-01/04-01/06 (January 29).
62. Prosecutor v. Lubanga Dyilo (2012). Case No. ICC-01/04-01/06 (July 10).
63. Prosecutor v. Norman (2003). Case No. SCSL-03-8-1 (7 March 7).
64. Prosecutor v. Norman (2004). Case No. SCSL-2004-14AR72(E) (May 31).
65. Prosecutor v. Norman Fofana et al. (2004). Case No. SCSL-03-14-1 (February 5).
66. Prosecutor v. Sesay Kallon et al. (2009). Case No. SCSL-04-15-T (March 2).
67. Prosecutor v. Taylor (2012). Case No. SCSL-03-1-T (April 26).
68. Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Additional Protocol I) (adopted June 8, 1977, entered into force December 7, 1978) 1125 UNTS 3.
69. Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts (Additional Protocol II) (adopted June 8, 1977, entered into force December 7, 1978) 1125 UNTS 609.
70. Qazi Zada, S. & Qazi Zada, M. (2016). Codification of Islamic Law in the Muslim World: Trends and Practices, J. Appl. Environ. Biol. Sci., 6 (12): 160-171.
71. Rosen David, M. (2005). Armies of the Young: Child Soldiers in War and Terrorism. New Brunswick et al.: Rutgers University Press.
72. Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī, trans. (1997). Translated by Muhammad Muhsin Khan. Vol. 4, 5, 7. Riyadh et al.: Darussalam.
73. Sahih Muslim, trans. (2007). Translated by Nasiruddin al-Khattab. Vol. 4, 5. Riyadh et al.: Darussalam.
74. Saiful Islam, M. (2015). Fundamental Human Rights towards Childhood: Islamic Guidelines are Unique to Protect the Child. Journal of Asia Pacific Studies, 4 (2): 177-202.
75. Shehadeh, O. A. & Maaita, R. F. (2011). Infanticide in Pre-Islam Era: Phenomenon Investigation. International Journal of Academic Research, 3 (4).
76. Snun Abu Dawud, trans. (2008). Translated by Nasiruddin al-Khattab. Vol. 3, 5. Riyadh et al.: Darussalam.
77. Snun Ibn Majjah, trans. (2007). Translated by Nasiruddin al-Khattab. Vol. 3, 4, 5. Riyadh et al.: Darussalam.
78. Tabari, trans. (1987). The History of Tabari (Ta'rikh al-rusul wa 'l-muluk). Translated by M v McDonald. Vol. VII. New York: State University of New York Press, Albany.
79. Tahir-ul-Qadr, M. (2012). The Constitution of Medina. London: Minhaj-ul-Quran Publications.
80. The Convention Concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour (The Labour Convention) (adopted June 17, 1999, entered into force November 19, 2000) 2133 UNTS 161.
81. The Convention on the Rights of the Child (adopted November 20, 1989, entered into force September 2, 1990) 1577 UNTS 3.
82. The Quran.
83. The Report of the Preparatory Committee on the Establishment of an International Criminal Court (1998). UN Doc. A/CONF.183/2/Add.1 (April 14).
84. The Rome Statute of the ICC (adopted July 17, 1998, entered into force July 1, 2002) 2187 UNTS 90.
85. The Statute of the Special Court for Sierra Leone (adopted January 16, 2002, entered into force April 12, 2002) 2178 UNTS 145.
86. Waschefort, C. (2011). “Child Soldiers and International Law: Progressing Towards ‘‘an Era of Application’’. PhD Thesis: University of London.
87. Weiss Bernard, G. (1998). The Spirit of Islamic Law. Georgia: University of Georgia Press.
88. Yildirim, Y. (2006). Peace and Conflict Resolution in the Medina Charter. Peace Review, 18 (1): 109-117.
89. Zanki, N. K. (2014). Codification of Islamic Law Premises of History and Debates of Contemporary Muslim Scholars. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 4 (9): 127-137.
90. Zarkashi (1985). Al-Manthur fi al-Qawahid. Vol. 3. Kuwait: Wazarat al-Awqaf wa al-Shu’un al-Islamiyah.
Published
2022-08-31
How to Cite
Khdir, R. R. (2022). Child Recruitment and Use during Armed Conflicts by Muslims between International Law and Islamic Law. European Scientific Journal, ESJ, 18(26), 108. https://doi.org/10.19044/esj.2022.v18n26p108
Section
ESJ Humanities