Impact of Swollen Shoot Disease on the Livelihoods of Smallholder Cocoa farmers in Côte d'Ivoire

  • Wenceslas Affessi Adopo University of Félix Houphouët Boigny, Cocody-Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire
  • Mahyao Germain Adolphe Socio-Economist, National Center for Agronomic Research (CNRA), Gagnoa Research Station, Côte d’Ivoire
  • Nestor Tiehi Health Economist, University of Félix Houphouët Boigny, Cocody-Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire
  • Camille Koffi Agricultural Economist, National Center for Agronomic Research (CNRA), Côte d’Ivoire
  • Koffie Kouakou Phytovirologist, World Agroforestry (CIFOR -ICRAF ), Côte d’Ivoire Université Jean Lorougnon Guédé de Daloa, Côte d’Ivoire
  • Zié Ballo Economist, University of Félix Houphouët Boigny, Cocody-Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire
Keywords: Cocoa, swollen shoot disease, impact, propensity score matching, livelihoods


The Cocoa Swollen Shoot Disease (CSSD) due to badnavirus species is endemic in West Africa and caused significant and irreversible economy losses for smallholder cocoa farmers in infected areas in Ghana and Côte d’Ivoire. The impact of the disease on the small farmers livelihoods has been investigated at cocoa farm households level in Côte d‘Ivoire. For that,  the propensity score matching method was used to construct a counterfactual and to compair group capturing the situation of affected households before the disease occuring on  their plantation, based on the observable characteristics of non affected households. A total of 800 cocoa farmers were randomly interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Results shown significant differences of expenditures for children's schooling and health of household’s with plantations infected by the disease compared to non affected. It was also found that households with swollen shoot in their cocoa plantation use less modern health services and invest less in children's education.


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How to Cite
Adopo, W. A., Adolphe, M. G., Tiehi, N., Koffi, C., Kouakou, K., & Ballo, Z. (2022). Impact of Swollen Shoot Disease on the Livelihoods of Smallholder Cocoa farmers in Côte d’Ivoire. European Scientific Journal, ESJ, 11, 258. Retrieved from
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