Sexual Violence: Are Women Victims or Responsible?

  • Adriana Ostuni Writer, Social Scientist
  • Giuseppina Sacco Department of Economics and Finance, University of Bari, Italy
  • Pietro Sacco Department of Economics and Finance, University of Bari, Italy
  • Alfonso Zizza Department of Economics and Finance, University of Bari, Italy
Keywords: Italian, sexual violence, stereotype


Sexual violence is the imposition of an unwanted physical contact obtained by force, manipulation, or coercion. This kind of violence, which is detrimental to the dignity of the person who suffers it, causes deep psychic as well as physical wounds in the victim and is the most widespread violation of human rights in all countries and cultures. This paper tries to investigate whether the stereotype of women being responsible for the sexual violence they suffered is dominant in our society. The study of this stereotype has been addressed through the survey "Gender roles stereotypes and the social image of sexual violence" carried out by ISTAT in 2019 (referred to 2018) on the adult, male and female, population aged between 18 and 74. With regard to the stereotypes proposed in the survey, the results have shown that there is a clear contrast between young and older women and between women with a higher educational qualification and those with an elementary school degree. At the regional level, however, the contrast is between Central-Northern regions and Southern Italy: in five of the eight regions belonging to the southern division the most widespread stereotype is that the responsibility for sexual violence is attributable to women.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


1. Ambrosini M., Sciolla L., (2019). Sociologia, Mondadori Università, Firenze.
2. Brown R., (2013). Psicologia del pregiudizio, Edizioni Il Mulino, Collana Collezione di testi e di studi, Bologna.
3. Cimagalli F. (a cura di) (2014). Le politiche contro la violenza di genere nel welfare che cambia: concetti, modelli e servizi, Milano, Franco Angeli.
4. Corradi C., (a cura di) (2016). Modelli sociali della violenza contro le donne. Rileggere la violenza nella modernità, F. Angeli.
5. Delvecchio F., (2010). Statistica per l’analisi dei dati multidimensionali, Padova, CLEUP.
6. Goffman V.E., (1969). La vita quotidiana come rappresentazione, Il Mulino, Bologna.
7. Lis A., Sambin M., (1977). Analisi dei cluster, Padova, CLEUP.
8. Ostuni A., Sacco G., Sacco P., Zizza A., (2022). Italian Society and Gender Role Stereotypes. How Stereotypical Beliefs Concerning Males and Females are Still Present in Italian People at the Beginning of the Third Millennium, Department of Economics and Finance, University of Bari, Italy. ESJ (European Scientific Journal– PUBLISHING) May 2022 edition, Pagg. 1- 20, Vol.18, No.16, ISSN: 1857-7881 (Print) - ISSN 1857-7431.
9. Ostuni A., (2017). Le verità apparenti, Bari, WIP Edizioni.
10. Ostuni A., (2015). Apollo nel caos, Phasar Edizioni, Firenze.
11. Sacco G., (2006). La violenza contro le donne: i risultati di un’indagine, bAnnali del Dipartimento di Scienze Statistiche “Carlo Cecchi”, Vol. V, Facoltà di Economia, Puglia Grafica Sud, Ed., Bari.
12. Sacco G., (2008). Violence Against Women: The Results of a Survey, Global Bioethics, Vol. 12 n. 1-4, ed. Pontecorboli, Firenze.
13. Villano P., (2003). Pregiudizi e stereotipi, Edizioni Carocci, Collana Le Bussole, Roma.
14. Volpato C., (2022). Psicosociologia del maschilismo, Laterza.
15. Ward J. H., (1963). Hierarchical Grouping to Optimize an Objective Function, Journal of the American Statistical Association, n.58, 236-244.
How to Cite
Ostuni, A., Sacco, G., Sacco, P., & Zizza, A. (2023). Sexual Violence: Are Women Victims or Responsible?. European Scientific Journal, ESJ, 17, 270. Retrieved from
ESI Preprints